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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\SP
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Sex Peptide
Annotation Symbol
CG17673
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003034
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Sex Peptide (SP) encodes a peptide produced by the male accessory glands and transferred to females during mating. In mated females, it induces post-mating responses including increased egg production, decreased receptivity to mating, changes in juvenile hormone levels, in longevity and in sperm release from storage, and in feeding, digestion, and activity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Also Known As

Acp70A, ACP, DrmSP, Accessory gland protein 70A

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:13,301,635..13,301,922 [+]
Recombination map

3-40

RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:13301635..13301922
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (13 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:O97148
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR012608
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR012608
(assigned by InterPro )
traceable author statement
inferred from sequence model
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the Drosophila sex peptide family. (P05623)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NEUROPEPTIDES -
Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Male seminal protein which triggers short- and long-term post-mating behavioral responses (PMR) in female Drosophila (PubMed:3135120, PubMed:19249273, PubMed:20308537, PubMed:19793753, PubMed:15694303, PubMed:24089336). Binds initially to sperm where it is later cleaved to release an active peptide within the female reproductive tract. Signals via the sex peptide receptor (SPR) in female flies; may also act via other receptors (PubMed:20458515, PubMed:20308537, PubMed:24089336). Moderates the activity of distinct neuronal circuitries in the female genital tract to promote specific PMRs including: enhanced ovulation, increased egg laying rate, increased feeding/foraging rate, induced antimicrobial peptide synthesis, reduced mating receptivity, reduced day-time sleep and reduced lifespan in multiple mated females (PubMed:3135120, PubMed:15694303, PubMed:19249273, PubMed:19793753, PubMed:24089336).
(UniProt, P05623)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Acp70A: Accessory gland peptide
Encodes a 36-amino-acid peptide that is synthesized in the accessory gland and is transferred to the female where it represses female sexual receptivity and stimulates oviposition. The peptide contains a high concentration of basic amino acids, tryptophan and hydroxyproline as well as an unique residue of unknown nature that is encoded by a leucine codon.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

male ejaculate accessory gland protein transferred to females during mating - decreases female receptivity and stimulates egg production in the first mating of virgin females - decreases receptivity to mating, changes in juvenile hormone levels, in longevity and in sperm release from storage, and in feeding, digestion, and activity

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\SP for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075836
223
55
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075572
6.4
55
10.78
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

Sperm-bound protein is cleaved to release an active C-terminal peptide. Gradual release from stored sperm may function to prolong PMR and enhance male reproductive success.

(UniProt, P05623)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\SP using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{Acp70-GFP.S65T}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\SP in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 1 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 27 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of SP
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of SP
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190KY1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map

    3-40

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:13,301,635..13,301,922 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    70A4-70A4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0422004220&P{lacW}l(3)j10B6j10B6 and P{PZ}stv00543
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    70A-70A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (9)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (3)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of

        Source for identity of: SP Acp70A

        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments

        Renamed from 'Acp70A' to 'SP' to reflect usage in the literature and to match the nomenclature of the gene encoding the SP receptor ('SPR').

        Other Comments

        In matings with virgin females, Acp70A protein transfer increases mating productivity and delays remating and hence the onset of sperm competition. In already mated females, Acp70A protein transfer does not elevate absolute progeny production, but does increase intermating intervals and hence the period over which a male can gain paternity. Consistent with this, under free-mating conditions over an extended period, a "per-mating" fitness benefit is detected for males transferring Acp70A protein.

        Application of methoprene mimics the Acp70A product-mediated stimulation of vitellogenic oocyte progression in sexually mature virgin females.

        Females are capable of repelling males be emitting a volatile pheromone(s) with an inhibitory effect on male courtship.

        In a screen of 204 randomly selected Scer\GAL4 enhancer trap lines 33 give rise to Sex Peptide responses, but none separate the behavioural and physiological responses. These results indicate that the two responses are either identical, very close together or in two anatomically distinct tissues expression a common set of genes.

        Acp70A injection mimics the effects of mating, suggesting Acp70A is the major effector in the changes induced by mating with respect to increase egg production and laying.

        Chromosome homologies of Muller's element D (J chromosome in the Paleartic species and XR chromosome arm in Nearctic species) and of element E (O chromosome in the Paleartic species and 2 chromosome in Nearctic species) have been confirmed by single copy probes in the species of the obscura group and in D.melanogaster.

        Injection of Acp70A or ectopic expression of Acp70A in virgin females causes reduced receptivity and increased ovulation and oviposition. These behavioural changes suggest that the nervous system is involved in females' reaction to Acp70A.

        Both purified Acp70A from D.suzukii and synthetic D.melanogaster Acp70A reduce receptivity and induce ovulation in D.suzukii and D.melanogaster females, confirming functional homology.

        Encodes a 36-amino-acid peptide that is synthesized in the accessory gland and is transferred to the female. The peptide contains a high concentration of basic amino acids, tryptophan and hydroxyproline as well as an unique residue of unknown nature that is encoded by a leucine codon.

        Once transfered to the female Acp70A represses female sexual receptivity and stimulates oviposition.

        The Acp70A gene product elicits the post-mating behaviour in females.

        Biochemical analysis and molecular regulation studies of the male accessory gland secretions of Acp70A demonstrate that Acp70A gene product inhibits remating and enhances the ovulation of virgin females. Acp70A gene product has no effect on virgins of phylogenetically related species.

        The D.sechellia Acp70A gene product shows high identity to that of D.melanogaster.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 81 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (27)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        PapB
        SP
        (Drummond-Barbosa, 2019, Hopkins et al., 2019, Isaac, 2019, Nässel et al., 2019, Scheunemann et al., 2019, Yoshinari et al., 2019, Ameku et al., 2018, Chen et al., 2018, Singh et al., 2018, Tian and Wang, 2018, Wensing and Fricke, 2018, Dove et al., 2017, Fricke and Chapman, 2017, Liu and Jin, 2017, Schoofs et al., 2017, Schwenke and Lazzaro, 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Yamamoto and Kohatsu, 2017, Bowman and Tatar, 2016, Garbe et al., 2016, Chow et al., 2015, Lee et al., 2015, Li et al., 2015, Tsuda et al., 2015, Feng et al., 2014, Findlay et al., 2014, Fricke et al., 2014, Fricke et al., 2013, Gligorov et al., 2013, Griffith, 2013, Haussmann et al., 2013, Pavlou and Goodwin, 2013, Vandersmissen et al., 2013, Hanin et al., 2012, Keleman et al., 2012, Laflamme et al., 2012, Minami et al., 2012, Rettie and Dorus, 2012, Rezaval et al., 2012, Tayler et al., 2012, Wong et al., 2012, Cognigni et al., 2011, Haussmann et al., 2011, Moehle et al., 2011, Sirot et al., 2011, Wigby et al., 2011, Avila et al., 2010, Chow et al., 2010, Fricke et al., 2010, Isaac et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Nässel and Winther, 2010, Poels et al., 2010, Ribeiro and Dickson, 2010, Sokolowski, 2010, Fricke et al., 2009, Häsemeyer et al., 2009, Ja et al., 2009, Ram and Wolfner, 2009, Rogina, 2009, Sackton et al., 2009, Yang et al., 2009, Barnes et al., 2008, Yapici et al., 2008, Yapici et al., 2008, Domanitskaya et al., 2007, Ram and Wolfner, 2007, Ravi Ram and Wolfner, 2007, Birse et al., 2006, Carvalho et al., 2006, Carvalho et al., 2006, Villella et al., 2006, Domanitskaya and Kubli, 2005, Domanitskaya et al., 2005, Gage, 2005, Kubli, 2005, Kubli et al., 2005, Peng et al., 2005, Amrein, 2004, Domanitskaya and Kubli, 2004, Johnson et al., 2004, Kubli et al., 2004, Chapman et al., 2003, Ding et al., 2003, Johnson et al., 2003, Kubli, 2003, Liu and Kubli, 2003, Liu et al., 2003, Peng et al., 2003, Peng et al., 2003, Rexhepaj et al., 2003, Swanson, 2003, Ueyama and Fuyama, 2003, Saudan et al., 2002, Fleischmann et al., 2001, Peng et al., 2001, Peng et al., 2001, Peyre and Aigaki, 2001, Rexhepaj et al., 2001, Buesser et al., 2000, Ding et al., 2000, Fan et al., 2000, Greenspan and Ferveur, 2000, Ottiger et al., 2000, Peyre and Aigaki, 2000, Rexhepaj et al., 2000, Xue and Noll, 2000, Buesser et al., 1999, Ding et al., 1999, Ejima et al., 1999, Fan et al., 1999, Ottiger et al., 1999, Peyre and Aigaki, 1999, Rexhepaj et al., 1999, Soller et al., 1999, Imamura et al., 1998, Kubli et al., 1998, Peyre and Aigaki, 1998, Czank et al., 1997, Kubli et al., 1997, Nakayama et al., 1997, Soller et al., 1997, Chen, 1996, Czank et al., 1996, Moshitzky et al., 1996, Nakayama et al., 1996, Soller et al., 1996, Soller et al., 1996, Aigaki et al., 1995, Aigaki et al., 1995, Fleischmann et al., 1995, Fleischmann et al., 1995, Fuyama, 1995, Fuyama, 1995, Soller et al., 1995, Fuyama, 1994, Hall, 1994, Schmidt et al., 1993, Kubli, 1992, Aigaki et al., 1991, Chen, 1991, Chen, 1991, Chen and Kubli, 1991)
        Spg70
        Name Synonyms
        Accessory gland peptide 70A
        Accessory gland protein 70A
        Paragonial-peptide-B
        sex peptide gene in 70
        sexpeptide
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0010084
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (275)