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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Scm
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Sex comb on midleg
Annotation Symbol
CG9495
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003334
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. PcG proteins act by forming multiprotein complexes, which are required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development. PcG proteins are not required to initiate repression, but to maintain it during later stages of development. They probably act via the methylation of histones, rendering chromatin heritably changed in its expressibility. (UniProt, Q9VHA0)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

Sex combs on midleg, Su(z)302

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:9,633,359..9,637,611 [-]
Recombination map
3-49
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:9633359..9637611
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (18 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VHA0
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Sfmbt; FB:FBgn0032475
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P41046
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P39769
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002284114
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002284114
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR010507, InterPro:IPR012313
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in axonogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in gene silencing
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ph-p; FB:FBgn0004861
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in neurogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from high throughput mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred by curator from GO:0016458
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002284114
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002284114
(assigned by GO_Central )
located_in nucleus
inferred by curator from GO:0016458
(assigned by UniProt )
part_of PRC1 complex
traceable author statement
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the SCM family. (Q9VHA0)
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Polycomb group (PcG) protein. PcG proteins act by forming multiprotein complexes, which are required to maintain the transcriptionally repressive state of homeotic genes throughout development. PcG proteins are not required to initiate repression, but to maintain it during later stages of development. They probably act via the methylation of histones, rendering chromatin heritably changed in its expressibility.
(UniProt, Q9VHA0)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Scm: Sex combs on midleg
Presumably Scm/+ males form sex combs on the mesothoracic legs; does not appear to have been explicitly described. Homozygous embryos show posteriorly directed transformations; A1 resembles A2 and A2-7 transformed into more posterior segments, head and thorax normal. Pcl Scm double homozygotes exhibit transformation of all segments toward A8; Keilin's organs retained in thoracic segments; head involution does not occur; prominant abdominal denticle band seen on dorsal surface of head. Homozygous embryos derived from transplanted homozygous maternal germ-cell precursors display A8 morphology in all thoracic and abdominal segments; head seems to resemble that of Pcl Scm double homozygotes produced by heterozygous mothers; heterozygous adults from homozygous oocytes show patchy transformations of A4 to A5 and of A6 and A7 to A8; similar transformation infrequently seen in heterozygous offspring of heterozygous mothers.
ScmK1
Strong dominant enhancer of the extra sex combs phenotype of Pc heterozygotes. Allelism to Scm inferred from phenotype and location.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Polycomb group - a member of a protein complex, termed PRC1 (Polycomb repressive complex 1) - Preincubation of nucleosomal arrays with PRC1 blocks the ability of these arrays to be remodeled by SWI/SNF - coordinates PcG complexes and polymerizes to produce broad domains of PcG silencing

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Scm for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.53

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0082102
4069
877
FBtr0306008
3767
877
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.1, 3.8 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0081580
93.6
877
8.71
FBpp0297150
93.6
877
8.71
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

877 aa isoforms: Scm-PA, Scm-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

100 (kD observed)

877 (aa); 94 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Scm associates with the PRC1 core complex containing PSC, PC, PH and Sce/RING1. Forms homotypic and heterotypic interactions. Interacts with the SAM domain of ph-p via its SAM domain in vitro. Interacts with corto in vitro.

(UniProt, Q9VHA0)
Domain

The SAM domain is essential for function.

(UniProt, Q9VHA0)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Scm using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Scm in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 35 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 28 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Scm
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Scm
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 9 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (13)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
7 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (13)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903JE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501TV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03KR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03HK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05BW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Scm associates with the PRC1 core complex containing PSC, PC, PH and Sce/RING1. Forms homotypic and heterotypic interactions. Interacts with the SAM domain of ph-p via its SAM domain in vitro. Interacts with corto in vitro.
    (UniProt, Q9VHA0 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-49
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:9,633,359..9,637,611 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    85E2-85E2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CrcEP3006 and P{lacW}s2681
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Location from complementation analysis with deficiency and duplication chromosomes (details unspecified).
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (14)
    Genomic Clones (20)
    cDNA Clones (39)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    Scm is required for normal neuroblast survival and proliferation in postembryonic central nervous system development.

    Silencing activity depends upon a protein interaction domain in tethered Scm protein.

    Pc-G proteins can silence gene expression at a large number of chromosomal locations, affecting both enhancer-activated and basal w transcription. Repression is observed even with separation distances of up to 3.0kb between target promoters and binding sites for tethered Pc-G proteins.

    Pc, Scm, Psc, ph-p and ph-d contribute to the PRC1 (Polycomb repressive complex 1). PRC1 directly antagonizes ATP-dependent remodeling of nucleosomal arrays in a purified system and may directly modulate (and be modified by) SWI/SNF (brm/mor) activity.

    Silencing activity of the iab-7PRE in the bithorax complex is dependent upon proteins from the Polycomb group.

    The SPM domain of ph-p and Scm mediates direct interaction between these proteins, and is sufficient for these protein interactions.

    Scm encodes a zinc finger protein with similarity to the polyhomeotic proteins.

    In an effort to subdivide the Pc-group genes functionally, the phenotypes of adult flies heterozygous for every pairwise combination of Pc-group mutation were examined. Asx, Pc, Pcl, Psc, Scm and Sce have similar functions in some imaginal tissues. Most duplications of Pc-group genes neither exhibit anterior transformations nor suppress the extra sex comb phenotype of Pc-group mutations, suggesting that not all Pc-group genes behave as predicted by the mass action model.

    Sections of the Scr regulatory region may be important for regulation of Scr by Polycomb- and trithorax-group genes.

    The effect of mutations in the Scm locus on mutagenesis in the y2ns scme double superunstable system has been analysed.

    The bithorax complex genes are regulated by the Pc group of genes, acting via 'Pc group response elements' (PREs), that can work even when removed from the normal bithorax complex context. The Pc group products apparently provide stable memory or imprinting of boundaries which are specified by gap and pair-rule regulators.

    Embryos mutant for two or more Pc group genes (Pc, Scm, Pcl, Psc, Asx, E(Pc), E(z), ph-d, pho and esc) show strong ectopic en expression, but only weak derepression occurs if embryo is mutant at only one of the Pc group genes. This effect is independent of the function of en itself, and wg.

    Mutations of genes in the polycomb group (esc, E(z), Pc, ph-p, ph-d, Scm, Pcl, Sce, Asx, Psc, pho and Antp) cause abnormal segmental development due to the ectopic expression of abd-A and Abd-B. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic Scm product were generated to determine abd-A and Abd-B expression patterns.

    The Pc group genes are negative regulators of homeotic genes.

    Dominant suppressor of z1 eye colour: yellow eye colour darken to an orange tan, and is also associated with homeotic transformations.

    Scm is one of the 18 loci identified in a screen for dominant modifiers of Pc and/or Antp phenotypes. Alleles of Pc, Pcl, Scm, Dll, brm, kto, Scr and trx show clear dominant enhancement or suppression of AntpScx, whereas alleles of vtd, Vha55, Su(Pc)37D, urd, mor, skd and osa do not.

    Pole cell transplantation techniques demonstrate that Scm is maternally expressed and is required for normal BXC expression during embryogenesis.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(3)85Ef
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (230)