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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sei
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
seizure
Annotation Symbol
CG3182
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003353
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
seizure (sei) encodes a protein involved in sound perception. [Date last reviewed: 2019-08-01] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

erg, Derg

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:24,047,411..24,053,035 [+]
Recombination map
2-106
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:24047411..24053035
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:eag; FB:FBgn0000535
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000025350
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000025350
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:eag; FB:FBgn0000535
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000025350
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000025350
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:eag; FB:FBgn0000535
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
seizure (sei) encodes a protein involved in sound perception. [Date last reviewed: 2019-08-01]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL - ALPHA SUBUNITS -
Voltage-gated potassium α subunits form homo- or heterotetrameric transmembrane channels specific for potassium which are activated by changes in membrane potential. Kv channel α subunits possess six or seven transmembrane domains. (Adapted from FBrf0224790).
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sei: seizure (J.C. Hall)
Paralyzed fairly rapidly at temperatures above 38; adults seem to have a fit before becoming immobile, as opposed to immediately ceasing their movements; increasing times of exposure to high temperature leads to progressively longer times necessary for recovery when temperature is lowered (Jackson et al., 1985); sei1 is recessive for heat-sensitive paralysis (Jackson et al., 1985); sei2 is semi-dominant in this respect, and behavior of hyperploid adults exhibits dose dependence: sei2/sei2/+ flies become paralyzed, at 40, slightly less rapidly than homozygous mutants; sei2/+/+ paralyzed more slowly than sei2/+ but faster than wild-type (Jackson et al., 1985); biochemically, head membrane extracts from sei2 adults exhibit anomalously high Kd of saxitoxin (STX) binding activity, and a different pH dependence of this activity from wild-type; these abnormalities observed when the incubations done at high, but not low, temperatures (Jackson et al., 1984); in flies carrying three sei alleles, apparent reductions in the amounts of STX bound are observed, which are proportional to the relative number of mutant alleles (Jackson et al., 1985); when these kinds of biochemical experiments are performed on head extracts from sei1, Kd values are not appreciably different from wild-type at all assay temperatures, but the concentrations of STX binding activity are lower than wild-type under the influence of this allele, with such reductions being more marked at higher assay temperatures; recovery times, after exposure to high temperature and subsequent return to mild conditions, are shortened when sei2 is combined with napts (Jackson et al., 1985). Recordings of action potentials in the adult giant-fiber pathway reveal no decrement in sei2 at 40 (Nelson and Baird, 1985, Neurosci. Abstr. 11: 313); at temperatures >40, sei2 causes spontaneous activity in recordings from dorsal longitudinal flight muscles, to appear coincidentally with the heat-induced paralysis (Kasbekar et al., 1989); from "tight-seal whole-cell" recordings, using cultured neurons from sei1 embryos, this mutation found to cause sodium current density to be about half-normal; yet, voltage dependence and channel-gating properties were not different from wild type (O'Dowd and Aldrich, 1988); for other aspects of sei-associated defects in physiology, see enhancer of seizure.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\sei for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072169
2716
855
FBtr0072170
2752
855
FBtr0343342
3197
855
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.8-3.0 (northern blot)

3.4, 3.0 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072078
97.6
855
9.13
FBpp0072079
97.6
855
9.13
FBpp0310000
97.6
855
9.13
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

855 aa isoforms: sei-PA, sei-PB, sei-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

855 (aa); 97.5 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sei using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

A single 2.8-3.0 kb sei transcript is detected in northern blots of whole adult mRNA. In situ hybridization experiments show that sei is expressed in the embryonic CNS.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sei in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 14 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sei
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sei
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 9 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
neuromuscular junction & synapse
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (17)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1  
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (16)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (17)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (28)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
3 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902IE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915003R )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01GI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01EQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G024C )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (7)
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Interactions Browser
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
enhanceable
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map
2-106
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:24,047,411..24,053,035 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
60B5-60B6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Phmk07623&P{lacW}tsrk05633 and P{EP}EP503
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
60B1-60B2
60B1-60B2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Right of (cM)
Notes

Mapped by B. Ganetzky. Probably maps a short interval (<1 mu) to 2-106, inferred from cytology.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (8)
Genomic Clones (15)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (11)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: sei CG3182

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    The ppk29 gene regulates neuronal excitability by a protein-independent mechanism, by affecting the level of activity of the sei potassium channel. This regulation occurs via a protein-independent mechanism: the 3'UTR of the ppk29 gene acts as a natural antisense transcript (the two genes are convergently transcribed and the 3'UTRs overlap by 88bp) which regulates the neuronal mRNA levels of sei via the canonical endogenous siRNA pathway. This regulatory interaction is not symmetric (the sei 3'UTR does not regulate ppk29 levels).

    The erg polypeptide corresponds to sei, based on sequence analysis and failure of complementation.

    Isolation and characterisation of sei. The primary defect in sei is in a K+ channel polypeptide.

    From 'tight-seal whole-cell' recordings, using cultured neurons from sei1 embryos, this mutation found to cause sodium current density to be about half-normal; yet, voltage dependence and channel-gating properties were not different from wild type.

    Though some of the data mentioned above suggest sei might code for a voltage-sensitive sodium-channel component, this gene could not be co-localized with a known sodium-channel-encoding factor in 2R, which on the basis of clone and sequence plus in situ hybridization, maps within 60D-E.

    Paralyzed fairly rapidly at temperatures above 38oC; adults seem to have a fit before becoming immobile, as opposed to immediately ceasing their movements; increasing times of exposure to high temperature leads to progressively longer times necessary for recovery when temperature is lowered.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Wu and Ganetzky.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 44 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (115)