Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sgg
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
shaggy
Annotation Symbol
CG2621
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003371
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
shaggy (sgg) encodes a glycogen synthase kinase 3, and a key component of the β-catenin destruction complex. It functions in the canonical Wnt cascade. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

zw3, GSK3, GSK3β, GSK-3β, GSK-3

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:2,633,952..2,679,553 [+]
Recombination map
1-1
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:2633952..2679553
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (52 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000624299
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (39 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (32 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in chaeta development
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in circadian rhythm
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:aPKC; FB:FBgn0261854
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:aPKC; FB:FBgn0261854
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in habituation
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:chico; FB:FBgn0024248
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:cos; FB:FBgn0000352
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with UniProtKB:P91634
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in olfactory learning
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in oogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
involved_in heart development
traceable author statement
involved_in locomotor rhythm
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001173193
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
traceable author statement
involved_in rhythmic behavior
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000624299
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in axon
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in centrosome
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in fusome
inferred from direct assay
located_in mitotic spindle
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in axon
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001173193
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000624299
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in cytosol
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001173193
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001173193
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GSK-3 subfamily. (P18431)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
shaggy (sgg) encodes a glycogen synthase kinase 3, and a key component of the β-catenin destruction complex. It functions in the canonical Wnt cascade. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE 3-LIKE KINASES -
The Glycogen Synthase kinase 3 family are serine/threonine kinases. There are two isoforms: α and β. GSK-3 enzymes are typically active in unstimulated cells and inhibited by phosphorylation in response to a variety of stimuli. (Adapted from PMID:25552693).
BETA CATENIN DESTRUCTION COMPLEX -
The β-catenin destruction complex is a cytoplasmic protein complex that phosphorylates β-catenin, targeting it for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. In the absence of Wnt signaling, the β-catenin destruction complex constitutively suppresses the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by preventing the accumulation of cytoplasmic β-catenin (arm). (Adapted from FBrf0217546).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of Wnt-TCF (canonical Wnt) signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for several developmental events such as syncytial blastoderm formation and embryonic segmentation. Is involved in transcriptional regulation. Required for arm phosphorylation. Wg signaling operates by inactivating the sgg repression of en autoactivation. Negatively controls the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) growth in presynaptic motoneurons. Plays a role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics and actin cytoskeleton during embryogenesis. Required for phosphorylation of sra in activated eggs. Essential for completion of meiosis, possibly by triggering calcineurin activation via sra phosphorylation. Phosphorylates microtubule-associated protein futsch in axons.
(UniProt, P18431)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
sgg: shaggy
Larval growth protracted, ceasing in the first [sgg2, sgg9], second [sgg5], or third [sgg3 and sgg10] larval instar; death follows. sgg10 may survive to puparium formation. Mutant cuticle tissue survives only in tergites; lacks bristles and appears etched; some deformed mutant wing tissue also observed in sgg3. sgg3, but no other allele produces viable and fertile males in combination with Dp(1;4)wm65g (Shannon, Kaufman, Shen, and Judd, 1972, Genetics 72: 615-38). sgg1 and sgg10 males exhibiting maternal-zygotic interaction with Dp(1;4)mg display deletion-mirror-image duplication homeotic transformation (eye-antenna, wing, and leg discs) (Robbins, 1983, Genetics 103: 633-48). Same noted in male tissue of gynandromorphs (Kaufman), sgg9, and sgg10 (Garcia-Bellido and Robbins, 1983, Genetics 103: 235-47). More recent studies with sgg32, an amorphic allele, (Bourouis et al.; Ripoll et al.; Simpson et al.; Simpson and Carteret) indicate that sgg is involved in the developmental choice between the epidermal pathway and that of the nervous system. In homozygous clones of sgg32 formed 48 h or more before puparium formation all trichomes are replaced by chaetae in the ratio of one chaeta to four trichomes reflecting the number of cells involved in the elaboration of each structure; chaetae formed conform to positional information and genotype; e.g., wing clones resemble dorsal or ventral costal bristles or triple or double row bristles depending on their position; clones are linear when near the margins and form clumps of chaetae when distant from the margins; adventitious veins often formed in association with wing clones. In the notum scutellar clones form macrochaetae in + but not sc genotypes and microchaetae in h but not + genotypes. Clones formed later than 48 h before puparium formation form trichomes, either more densely than normal (10-21 trichomes) or in normal density (up to 10 trichomes). sgg embryos from homozygous sgg female germ line cells exhibit delayed and disordered cellularization at blastoderm; gastrulation does not occur; no differentiation of ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm occurs; cell division continues and the embryo becomes filled with small round cells, most or all of which stain with neuronal-specific antibodies. sgg+ embryos from sgg female germinal tissue show nearly normal blastoderm formation and gastrulation; however they are short with complete cuticles and neural hyperplasia as seen in neurogenic mutants; a lawn of hairs is seen dorsally, and ventrally most of the denticle belts are lacking. Two doses of sgg+ in such embryos lead to more nearly normal cuticular development, but with odd-numbered denticle bands appearing before even-numbered ones. sgg progeny of females that carry sgg+ in their germ lines die as defective larvae with underdeveloped central nervous systems; the degree of CNS development is positively correlated with the number of maternal doses of sgg+.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

glycogen synthase kinase - segment polarity - a key component of the β-catenin destruction complex - functions in the Wingless signaling pathway - regulates Hedgehog ligand expression along with the N-end rule ubiquitin-protein ligase Hyperplastic discs

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
17
Number of Unique Polypeptides
10

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\sgg for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070467
2929
575
FBtr0070466
2847
514
FBtr0070470
3110
514
FBtr0070471
4805
1067
FBtr0070468
3055
514
FBtr0070469
4244
514
FBtr0070475
3174
496
FBtr0070472
3021
514
FBtr0070473
3091
514
FBtr0070474
3218
575
FBtr0070476
2745
416
FBtr0112828
2903
772
FBtr0301966
3182
416
FBtr0302185
2166
441
FBtr0331751
4750
1126
FBtr0331752
4499
1168
FBtr0331753
5004
597
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

6.3, 6.1, 5.2, 4.8, 4.3, 3.4, 2.9, 2.6, 2.5, 0.5 (northern blot); 2.7 (longest cDNA)

6.1, 5.2, 4.3, 3.4, 2.6, 2.5, 0.5 (northern blot)

2.5 (northern blot); 3.7 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070450
58.8
575
8.20
FBpp0070449
53.9
514
8.96
FBpp0070453
53.9
514
8.96
FBpp0070454
114.4
1067
5.58
FBpp0070451
53.9
514
8.96
FBpp0070452
53.9
514
8.96
FBpp0089160
52.1
496
8.61
FBpp0089162
53.9
514
8.96
FBpp0089158
53.9
514
8.96
FBpp0089159
58.8
575
8.20
FBpp0089161
43.3
416
8.12
FBpp0111741
78.1
772
9.29
FBpp0291178
43.3
416
8.12
FBpp0291395
46.2
441
9.21
FBpp0304139
121.2
1126
5.83
FBpp0304140
123.8
1168
5.27
FBpp0304141
61.5
597
7.27
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

514 aa isoforms: sgg-PB, sgg-PC, sgg-PE, sgg-PF, sgg-PH, sgg-PI
575 aa isoforms: sgg-PA, sgg-PJ
416 aa isoforms: sgg-PK, sgg-PN
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

1067, 575, 514 (aa); 100, 56 (kD observed); 114, 59, 54 (kD predicted)

58, 51, 47 (kD)

514 (aa); 54 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with cos.

(UniProt, P18431)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sgg using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

sgg protein was enriched in glutamatergic type 1b presynaptic terminals at the larval neuromuscular junction.

The 514aa sgg protein is the major form of the protein which is detected at essentially all stages of the life cycle.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in axon
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in centrosome
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from high throughput direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in fusome
inferred from direct assay
located_in mitotic spindle
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sgg in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 151 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 52 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sgg
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sgg
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 61 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 61 )
Gene disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult cuticle & abdomen | somatic clone
adult thorax & macrochaeta | somatic clone
adult thorax & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
adult thorax & microchaeta | somatic clone
macrochaeta & mesothoracic tergum | somatic clone | cell autonomous
macrochaeta & prescutum | somatic clone | cell autonomous
macrochaeta & scutum | somatic clone | cell autonomous
macrochaeta & wing
macrochaeta & wing | ectopic | somatic clone
ventral thoracic disc & macrochaeta | somatic clone
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
2  
11 of 15
No
Yes
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (9)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (10)
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
7 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190410 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501QG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W03Y0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0586 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G099S )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
7 of 10
3 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 15 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with cos.
    (UniProt, P18431 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Wnt-TCF Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of Wnt-TCF (canonical Wnt) signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the attenuation of transcriptional regulation mediated by β-catenin (arm).
    Negative Regulators of Insulin-like Receptor Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of the Insulin-like Receptor signaling pathway suppress Insulin-like receptor (InR) activation or the activity of intracellular effectors. (Adapted from FBrf0232297, FBrf0230017 and FBrf0229989).
    Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-1
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:2,633,952..2,679,553 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    3A8-3B1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}eghEP804 and P{EP}sggEP1576
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    3B1-3B2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation) 3A8--10 (determined by in situ hybridisation) 3B1--2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    3A8-3A10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    3B1-3B1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (64)
    Genomic Clones (31)
    cDNA Clones (330)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    Other clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: sgg CG2621

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: sgg l(1)G0263 l(1)G0335 l(1)G0183 l(1)G0055

    Source for merge of: sgg anon-WO03040301.254

    Additional comments

    The gskt gene may have been derived from the sgg gene by retroposition.

    Source for merge of sgg anon-WO03040301.254 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Other Comments

    Phosphorylation of Mad protein in the linker region by sgg regulates the development of sensory organs in the anterior-dorsal quadrant of the wing.

    sgg is cleaved from an inactive to an active form by Ark, Nc and Ice. The active sgg form inhibits macrochaeta formation.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    12 alleles of sgg been recovered in a screen for mutations with mutant phenotypes in clones in the wing.

    sgg has a role in the circadian clock.

    sgg has a role in tim phosphorylation and in regulated nuclear translocation of the per/tim heterodimer.

    Candidate gene for quantitative trait (QTL) locus determining bristle number.

    sgg has a dual role in mesoderm development. It acts as an antagonist in cardiogenic wg signal transduction. It also seems to be required to promote positively the formation of the tin- and dpp-dependent "dorsal mesoderm", which is a prerequisite for cardiogenesis and visceral mesoderm formation.

    Overexpression of sgg blocks wg signaling in the embryonic midgut.

    sgg positively regulates dpp expression and negatively regulates wg expression in the imaginal discs.

    Planar polarity phenotypes of loss of function and overexpression of fz in the developing eye is studied, the phenotype is almost identical to overexpression of sgg.

    dsh and arm, but not sgg are required for heart formation.

    sgg mutations emulate the effects of high ubiquitous wg in the midgut. sgg, dsh and arm function to transmit the wg signal in the midgut in the same way as they do in the epidermis. Results suggest the wg signal transduction pathway acts in all three germ layers, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.

    The sgg gene product is required for wg-dependent bristle inhibition.

    Variation of a microsatellite within the sgg locus has been studied in North American populations of D.melanogaster.

    Clonal analysis shows that loss of sgg causes cells to adopt fates normally characteristic of wg-expressing cells and to interact with adjacent wild-type tissue to cause pattern duplications similar to those caused by ectopic wg expression.

    por is epistatic to sgg in the regulation of wg.

    Genetic interactions suggest that cno participates with members of the N pathway in regulating adhesive cell-cell interactions for the determination of cell fate.

    sgg is part of a signalling pathway that is required for functions of post-embryonic development, including specification of peripheral sense organs.

    sgg gene is indispensable for the transmission of the wg signal in distinct cells.

    sgg is required for normal specification or maintenance of regional identity in the developing wing blade. sgg may be involved in the wg pathway. sgg acts downstream of localised ap and wg expression to specify or maintain margin identity in the wing.

    arm, dsh and sgg encode elements of a unique wg signalling pathway that is used several times throughout development.

    wg acts through inactivation of the sgg protein kinase to specify ventral cell fate in the leg.

    Direct wg autoregulation differs from wg signalling to adjacent cells in the importance of fu, smo and ci relative to sgg and arm.

    sgg is required for arm phosphorylation in vivo.

    Levels of cytoplasmic arm are regulated by sgg. Double mutant analysis demonstrates that arm functions downstream of wg and sgg.

    dsh and por act upstream of sgg, and arm acts downstream of sgg in the wg signalling pathway. dsh and por act upstream of sgg and arm acts downstream.

    The sgg locus is structurally complex, encoding multiple proteins. Mutational analysis reveals a single complementation group, lethality of which is associated with the loss of two major sgg proteins. Phenotypes of flies expressing individual sgg proteins reveal some but not complete redundancy of function. Under experimental conditions, one form of the protein can carry out all known functions.

    Epistatic relationships indicate that sgg/'glycogen synthase kinase-3' is part of a signalling pathway downstream of N.

    wg and en expression patterns are studied in all known segment polarity mutants to investigate the requirement of other segment polarity genes in mediating the maintenance of wg and en.

    Three classes of protein encoded by sgg have been characterised, A, B and C. The A form of sgg encodes the homologue of mammalian glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    Genetic epistasis experiments indicate that wg signalling operates by inactivating the sgg repression of en autoregulation. sgg is epistatic to wg.

    sgg is only required in cells expressing ac and sc.

    sgg has been molecularly characterised and mutant phenotypes described.

    The sgg locus has been molecularly characterised. Sequence analysis suggests that sgg encodes a serine/threonine kinase.

    Partial maternal insufficiency of sgg does not cause embryonic lethality.

    The sgg gene product displays homology to Ser-Thr protein kinases: sgg may play a role in a signal transduction pathway involved in the establishment of cell identity within each embryonic segment.

    Clonal analysis has shown that ac and sc gene expression is unaltered in sgg mutants. Clusters of macrochaetae are caused by the differentiation of several bristles from each proneural cluster, sgg+ is necessary for the segregation of only one bristle mother cell within the cluster.

    The role of sgg during development has been studied.

    Larval growth protracted, ceasing in the first <up>sgg2, sgg9</up>, second sgg<up>5</up>, or third <up>sgg3 and sgg10</up> larval instar; death follows. sgg10 may survive to puparium formation. Mutant cuticle tissue survives only in tergites; lacks bristles and appears etched; some deformed mutant wing tissue also observed in sgg3. sgg3, but no other allele produces viable and fertile males in combination with Dp(1;4)wm65g (Shannon et al., 1972). sgg1 and sgg10 males exhibiting maternal-zygotic interaction with Dp(1;4)mg display deletion-mirror-image duplication homeotic transformation (eye-antenna, wing and leg discs) (Robbins, 1983). Same noted in male tissue of gynandromorphs (Kaufman), sgg9 and sgg10 (Garcia-Bellido and Robbins, 1983). More recent studies with sgg32, an amorphic allele, (Bourouis et al., 1989; Ripoll et al., 1988; Simpson et al., 1988; Simpson and Carteret, 1989) indicate that sgg is involved in the developmental choice between the epidermal pathway and that of the nervous system. In homozygous clones of sgg32 formed 48 h or more before puparium formation all trichomes are replaced by chaetae in the ratio of one chaeta to four trichomes reflecting the number of cells involved in the elaboration of each structure; chaetae formed conform to positional information and genotype; e.g., wing clones resemble dorsal or ventral costal bristles or triple or double row bristles depending on their position; clones are linear when near the margins and form clumps of chaetae when distant from the margins; adventitious veins often formed in association with wing clones. In the notum scutellar clones form macrochaetae in + but not sc genotypes and microchaetae in h but not + genotypes. Clones formed later than 48 h before puparium formation form trichomes, either more densely than normal (10-21 trichomes) or in normal density (up to 10 trichomes). sgg embryos from homozygous sgg female germ line cells exhibit delayed and disordered cellularization at blastoderm; gastrulation does not occur; no differentiation of ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm occurs; cell division continues and the embryo becomes filled with small round cells, most or all of which stain with neuronal-specific antibodies. sgg+ embryos from sgg female germinal tissue show nearly normal blastoderm formation and gastrulation; however they are short with complete cuticles and neural hyperplasia as seen in neurogenic mutants; a lawn of hairs is seen dorsally and ventrally most of the denticle belts are lacking. Two doses of sgg+ in such embryos lead to more nearly normal cuticular development, but with odd-numbered denticle bands appearing before even-numbered ones. sgg progeny of females that carry sgg+ in their germ lines die as defective larvae with underdeveloped central nervous systems; the degree of CNS development is positively correlated with the number of maternal doses of sgg+.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 280 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (87)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    EG:BACR7C10.8
    Sgg/Zw3/GSK3
    Zw3/GSK3
    anon-WO03040301.254
    sgg
    (Aboukilila et al., 2020, Graves et al., 2020, Khoroshko et al., 2020, Korona et al., 2020, Li et al., 2020, Li et al., 2020, Parker et al., 2020, Port et al., 2020, Trostnikov et al., 2020, Weiner et al., 2020, Zhang et al., 2020, Banerjee et al., 2019, Evangelakou et al., 2019, Fulford et al., 2019, Harbison et al., 2019, Hegazi et al., 2019, Hurcombe et al., 2019, Khan et al., 2019, Lenaerts et al., 2019, Manola et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Sivanantharajah et al., 2019, Trostnikov et al., 2019, Wang and Baker, 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Zhang and Zhang, 2019, Zheng, 2019.1.30, Lee et al., 2018, Waghmare and Page-McCaw, 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Recasens-Alvarez et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Tsakiri et al., 2017, Castillo-Quan et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Deshpande et al., 2016, Iyer et al., 2016, Lin et al., 2016, Morimoto et al., 2016, Mottier-Pavie et al., 2016, Orme et al., 2016, Sieber et al., 2016, Tare et al., 2016, Aradska et al., 2015, Beckwith and Ceriani, 2015, Bouleau and Tricoire, 2015, Cowan et al., 2015, Dent et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Shaw et al., 2015, Sreedharan et al., 2015, Sugie et al., 2015, Wittkorn et al., 2015, Zirin et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Bischof, 2014.10.20, Choksi et al., 2014, Chuang et al., 2014, Jenny and Basler, 2014, Jiang et al., 2014, Kerr et al., 2014, Komori et al., 2014, Li et al., 2014, Lüchtenborg et al., 2014, Salazar-Jaramillo et al., 2014, Sopko et al., 2014, Tan et al., 2014, Wong et al., 2014, Bonke et al., 2013, Moran et al., 2013, Schertel et al., 2013, Shaw and Chang, 2013, Tang et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Wong et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013-, Zhang et al., 2013, Zhu and Zhang, 2013, Dupont et al., 2012, Érdi et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kuroda et al., 2012, Legent et al., 2012, Morris et al., 2012, Takeo et al., 2012, Winbush et al., 2012, Yang et al., 2012, Abruzzi et al., 2011, Acebes et al., 2011, Ambegaokar and Jackson, 2011, Bonner and Boulianne, 2011, Cowan et al., 2011, Devineni et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Muñoz-Descalzo et al., 2011, Rodal et al., 2011, Schrider et al., 2011, Toku et al., 2011, van Eyk et al., 2011, Zhou et al., 2011, Fernández-Ayala et al., 2010, Folwell et al., 2010, Gan et al., 2010, Knowles-Barley et al., 2010, Ko et al., 2010, Kremer et al., 2010, Lin et al., 2010, Metcalfe et al., 2010, Popodi, 2010.10.8, Singh et al., 2010, Swaminathan et al., 2010, Venken et al., 2010, Zheng and Sehgal, 2010, Alvarez-Ponce et al., 2009, Campbell et al., 2009, Chiang et al., 2009, Diangelo and Birnbaum, 2009, French and Heberlein, 2009, Galletti et al., 2009, Kemppainen et al., 2009, Krejcí et al., 2009, Perea et al., 2009, Viquez et al., 2009, Ataman et al., 2008, DeFalco et al., 2008, Franciscovich et al., 2008, Lighthouse et al., 2008, Lin et al., 2008, Mattila et al., 2008, Miech et al., 2008, Morris et al., 2008, Ogawa et al., 2008, Schmidt et al., 2008, Terriente et al., 2008, Weaver and Goldstein, 2008, Zeng et al., 2008, Beltran et al., 2007, Buszczak et al., 2007, Chen et al., 2007, Fang et al., 2007, Hatton-Ellis et al., 2007, Kalamegham et al., 2007, Kankel et al., 2007, Lindner et al., 2007, Nawathean et al., 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Quinones-Coello et al., 2007, Ruel et al., 2007, Stoleru et al., 2007, Vosshall, 2007, Wolf et al., 2007, Gogel et al., 2006, Hayward et al., 2006, Jordan et al., 2006, Khurana et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Cyran et al., 2005, Ishii, 2005, Lear et al., 2005, Marques, 2005, Nybakken et al., 2005, Xie et al., 2005, Mudher et al., 2004, Papadopoulou et al., 2004, Hall, 2003)
    zw3
    (Schaefer et al., 2018, Wiese et al., 2018, Mannava and Tolwinski, 2015, Kaplan et al., 2011, Quijano et al., 2011, Colosimo et al., 2010, Kaplan and Tolwinski, 2010, Quijano et al., 2010, Kaplan et al., 2009, Tolwinski, 2009, Wojcik, 2008, Colosimo and Tolwinski, 2006, Takaesu et al., 2005, Tolwinski and Wieschaus, 2004, Tolwinski and Wieschaus, 2004, Zeng and Verheyen, 2004, He, 2003, Tolwinski et al., 2003, Yamazaki and Yanagawa, 2003, Yu, 2003, Ahmed et al., 2002, Nakagoshi et al., 2002, Parker et al., 2002, Takaesu et al., 2002, Yanagawa et al., 2002, Allan and Nathke, 2001, Buratovich and Wilder, 2001, Freeman and Bienz, 2001, McCartney et al., 2001, Thumm and Kadowaki, 2001, Tolwinski and Wieschaus, 2001, Ainsworth et al., 2000, Bienz and Clevers, 2000, Buratovich et al., 2000, Cox et al., 2000, Kalamegham and Siegfried, 2000, McEwen et al., 2000, Zeng et al., 2000, Bejsovec, 1999, Boutros and Mlodzik, 1999, Loureiro, 1999, McCartney et al., 1999, Novak and Dedhar, 1999, Steitz et al., 1999, Willert et al., 1999, Ahmed et al., 1998, Axelrod et al., 1998, Cadigan et al., 1998, Cox and Peifer, 1998, Duffy et al., 1998, Kennerdell and Carthew, 1998, Mack et al., 1998, Park et al., 1998, Perrimon and Nusse, 1998, Rizkalla and Siegfried, 1998, Shulman et al., 1998, Steitz and Siegfried, 1998, Steitz et al., 1998, Waltzer and Bienz, 1998, Willert and Nusse, 1998, Zhang and Carthew, 1998, Cadigan and Nusse, 1997, Caldwell et al., 1997, Cavallo et al., 1997, Lecuit and Cohen, 1997, Nusse, 1997, Nusse, 1997, Nusse et al., 1997, Pai et al., 1997, Pai et al., 1997, Siegfried and Steitz, 1997, Steitz et al., 1997, Dean, 1996, Gilbert et al., 1996, Huang and Fischer-Vize, 1996, Miller and Moon, 1996, Park et al., 1996, Rulifson and Blair, 1996, Yu et al., 1996, Cadigan and Nusse, 1995, Goldstein and Clark, 1995, Gumbiner, 1995, Manoukian et al., 1995, Motzny and Holmgren, 1995, Phillips and Whittle, 1995, Wilder and Perrimon, 1995, Blair, 1994, DiNardo et al., 1994, Hooper, 1994, Klingensmith and Nusse, 1994, Peifer et al., 1994, Peifer et al., 1994, Siegfried and Perrimon, 1994, Siegfried et al., 1994, Martinez Arias, 1993, Peifer et al., 1993, van den Heuvel et al., 1993, Siegfried et al., 1992, Woods and Bryant, 1992, Siegfried et al., 1991, Siegfried et al., 1990, Siegfried et al., 1990, Goldberg et al., 1989, Perrimon and Smouse, 1989, Lefevre and Watkins, 1986, Schalet, 1986, Robbins, 1983, Thierry-Mieg, 1982, Lefevre, 1981, Judd et al., 1972)
    zw3/GSK3β
    Name Synonyms
    GSK-3 kinase
    Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3
    Glycogen synthase kinase 3Β
    Shaggy/Glycogen synthase kinase 3
    Shaggy/Zeste-white-3/Glycogen synthase kinase 3β
    Zeste white-3
    Zeste-white3
    glycogen synthase kinase 3Β
    glycogen synthase kinase-3β
    shaggy-zeste white 3
    shaggy/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
    shaggy/zeste-white 3
    zest-white 3
    zeste white-3
    zeste white3
    zestewhite-3
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0026697
    • FBgn0026849
    • FBgn0027246
    • FBgn0028324
    • FBgn0029071
    • FBgn0066814
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (868)