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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\shi
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
shibire
Annotation Symbol
CG18102
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003392
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

dynamin, Dyn, shibere

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:15,892,116..15,906,716 [+]
Recombination map

1-52

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:15892116..15906716
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (69 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170013
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170013
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (50 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (44 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:jar; FB:FBgn0011225
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170085
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170085
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000902162
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170013
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000902093
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000902093
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (16 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170013
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000902092
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170013
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000902092
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170085
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000902092
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000170172
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the TRAFAC class dynamin-like GTPase superfamily. Dynamin/Fzo/YdjA family. (P27619)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
DYNAMIN-LIKE GTPASES -
The Dynamin-like GTPases are a family of GTPases that undergo nucleotide-dependent dimerization and dimer-dependent GTP hydrolysis. They are implicated in membrane remodelling and endocytic membrane fission events. (Adapted from PMID:22233676).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Microtubule-associated force-producing protein which is involved in the production of microtubule bundles and which is able to bind and hydrolyze GTP. Implicated in endocytic protein sorting.
(UniProt, P27619)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
shi: shibire (C. A. Poodry)
The shibire locus is characterized by its temperature-sensitive alleles, which are reversibly paralyzed by exposure to 29, but are essentially normal at 22 (Grigliatti et al.). Exposure of developing animals to the restrictive temperature for pulses of one to several hours leads to a plethora of developmental defects, which are specific for the stage treated (Poodry, Hall, and Suzuki, 1973, Dev. Biol. 66: 442-56) (see following table). Short exposures to restrictive temperatures at the time of delamination of the neuroblasts from the neurogenic ectoderm leads to excess neurogenesis at the expense of epidermogenesis, as seen in the neurogenic mutants (Poodry, 1990, Dev. Biol., in press). Differentiation of myoblasts and neuroblasts is inhibited in shi1 embryonic cells in vitro at 30 (Buzin, Dewhurst, and Seecof, 1978, Dev. Biol. 66: 442-56). Embryonic neurons cultured at 30 show reduced adhesion to the substrate, retardation of growth cone formation and suppressed neuron formation and elongation; reversed by shift to permissive temperature (Kim and Wu, 1987, J. Neurosci. 7: 3245-55). Lethal embryos disorganized by the restrictive temperature can be cultured in vivo as tumorous masses (Poodry). Eye-antenna discs can also be cultured as tumorous masses for several transfer generations (Williams, 1981, DIS 56: 158-61). Primary in vivo culture of cut leg imaginal discs leads to an exceptionally high rate of transdetermination (Poodry).
            

temperature-
sensitive period               developmental phenotype
_________________________________________________________________________
1.5-3 hr                       loss of pole cells
3-4 hr                         fusion of cell membranes leading
                               to syncytium
5-12 hr                        disorganized proliferation of cells
                               leading to transplantable tumorous
                               masses
late third instar              stubby legs; joints missing;
  12 hr heat pulse             clipped wings
48 hr before pupariation       eye scar (loss of pigment cells
                               and cone cells).  The later the
                               heat pulse, the more anterior the
                               position of the scar on eye
pupariation to pupation        animals die and fail to undergo
                               pupation
14-24 hr after pupariation     supernumerary microchaetae on head
                               and thorax; the temperature sensitive
                               period for each bristle site precedes
                               the final cell division of bristle
                               precursor; loss of macrochaetae on
                               head and thorax.  Disruption of giant-
                               fiber pathway development (Hummon and
                               Costello, 1987, J. Neurosci. 7:  3633-38).
                               Reduced numbers of dorsal-longitudinal
                               flight muscles (Hummon and Costello,
                               1988, Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol.
                               197:  383-93)
24-36 hr after pupariation     loss of head and thoracic micro-
                               chaetae; supernumerary abdominal
                               macrochaetae and microchaetae
28-42 hr after pupariation     loss of abdominal macrochaetae
                               and microchaetae
32-48 hr after pupariation     loss of abdominal microchaetae
48 hr after pupariation        scimitar-shaped bristles
adult                          eggs fail to mature

            
            
The temperature-sensitive alleles differ in the severity of their paralysis, recovery period, the restrictive temperature for developmental effects, and in their viability as hemizygotes. They are all hypomorphs, being recessive and having a more extreme expression in combination with a deficiency than when homozygous. A wild-type paternal gene can rescue an egg from a homozygous mother only after 10 hr of development (Swanson and Poodry, 1976, Dev. Biol. 48: 205-11). Of the developmental effects tested, all are autonomous in mosaics generated by somatic recombination or in gynandromorphs (Poodry). The developmental effects on bristles is not enhanced or suppressed by the presence of temperature-sensitive alleles of N; shi is epistatic to N (Lujan, 1981, DIS 56: 86). Physiological studies of shi have revealed the loss of transients in electroretinograms (Kelley and Suzuki, 1974, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 71: 4906-09) and failure of neuromuscular transmission at the restrictive temperature (Ikeda, Ozawa, and Hagiwara, 1976, Nature 259: 489-91; Siddiqi and Benzer, 1976, Proc Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 3253-57), though axonal conduction and muscle membrane excitability are unimpaired (Ikeda et al.). Exposure of shi1 adults to 29 causes the depletion of synaptic vesicles from the neuromuscular synapse and their replacement with large cisternae (Poodry and Edgar, 1979, J. Cell Biol. 81: 520-27; Koenig, Saito, and Ikeda, 1983, J. Cell Biol. 96: 1517-22). Accumulation of acetyl choline is reduced at the restrictive temperature, not because of reduced synthesis but because of an abnormally rapid rate of release from the cell, which is not reduced by inhibiting tetrodotoxin-sensitive nerve activity (Wu, Merneking, and Barker, 1983, J. Neurochem. 40: 1386-96). Endocytosis is reversibly blocked in the nerve terminus (Kosaka and Ikeda, 1983, Neurobiol. 14: 207-25; Masur, Kim, and Wu, 1990, J. Neurosci.) and may limit the ability of nerves to regenerate synaptic vesicles. Neuromuscular transmission temperature is sensitive in mosaics in which the neuron but not the muscle is mutant, but not in the converse situation (Koenig and Ikeda, 1983, J. Neurobiol. 14: 411-19). During recovery from exposure to 30 shits1 muscles display a multimodal distribution of miniature excitatory junction potential amplitudes never seen in wild type (Ikeda and Koenig, 1987, J. Physiol. 406: 215-23). Further, as the temperature is increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory junction potentials decreases; the numbers of vesicles per synapse displays a correlated decrease (Koenig, Kosaka, and Ikeda, 1989, J. Neurosci. 9: 1937-42). Endocytosis is also blocked in the garland cells (Kosaka and Ikeda, 1983, J. Cell Biol. 97: 499-507). Vesiculation of cell membranes results in fusion of blastoderm cells (Swanson and Poodry, 1981, Dev. Biol. 84: 465-70) and vesiculation of surface membranes accompanies secretion of protein epicuticle (Poodry).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

GTPase involved in scission of clathrin-coated vesicles at the synapse and other sites of vesicle invagination - dynamin-mediated endocytosis is required for tube closure, cell intercalation, and biased apical expansion during epithelial tubulogenesis in the Drosophila ovary

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
15
Number of Unique Polypeptides
7

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\shi for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074121
3990
830
FBtr0074118
4180
830
FBtr0074119
3878
830
FBtr0074122
3991
830
FBtr0074123
3191
877
FBtr0074124
3190
877
FBtr0111036
4309
830
FBtr0111037
4321
830
FBtr0301594
3380
877
FBtr0301595
3300
877
FBtr0301596
3096
883
FBtr0301597
4198
836
FBtr0333717
3712
896
FBtr0333718
4768
834
FBtr0340413
3667
881
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

5.1, 4.3 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0089278
93.0
830
8.43
FBpp0073928
93.0
830
8.43
FBpp0073929
93.0
830
8.43
FBpp0089279
93.0
830
8.43
FBpp0089280
97.8
877
8.58
FBpp0089277
97.8
877
8.58
FBpp0110335
93.0
830
8.43
FBpp0110336
93.0
830
8.43
FBpp0290809
97.8
877
8.58
FBpp0290810
97.8
877
8.58
FBpp0290811
98.5
883
8.43
FBpp0290812
93.7
836
8.26
FBpp0305866
99.9
896
8.87
FBpp0305867
93.5
834
8.08
FBpp0309359
98.3
881
8.26
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

830 aa isoforms: shi-PA, shi-PB, shi-PC, shi-PE, shi-PH, shi-PI
877 aa isoforms: shi-PF, shi-PG, shi-PJ, shi-PK
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

883, 836 (aa); 100 (kD observed)

Comments

A form of shi protein which localizes

predominantly to the head. This form includes 6aa inserted at the first

alternate splice site (Alt1) that are absent in the "body" form of the

protein.

A form of shi protein which localizes

predominantly to the body. This form lacks 6aa inserted at the first

alternate splice site (Alt1) that are present in the "head" form of the

protein. An antibody to shi was generated in mouse that reacts primarily

with the body form of shi protein. This difference supports the

existence of different brain and body forms but the differential

immunoreactivity could not be completely explained by the splicing

variants identified here.

alternative 3' exon

External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\shi using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
immuno-electron microscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

shi protein is found in the presynaptic membrane in neuromuscular junctions in wandering third instar larvae.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\shi in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 71 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 34 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of shi
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of shi
Deletions and Duplications ( 15 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
abdominal 2 ventral longitudinal muscle & larval somatic muscle | conditional ts
actin filament & spermatid | conditional ts
adherens junction & wing cell | pupal stage | conditional - heat sensitive
axon & eye photoreceptor cell | conditional - heat sensitive, with Scer\GAL4GMR.PF
eye photoreceptor cell & ommatidium | ectopic
garland cell & endosome
glial cell & brain & pupa | conditional ts, with Scer\GAL4repo
larval somatic muscle & presynaptic membrane | conditional ts
larval somatic muscle & synaptic vesicle | conditional ts
macrochaeta & thorax | conditional ts
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta
microchaeta & thorax | conditional ts
photoreceptor cell & synaptic vesicle
wing & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
5  
12 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
6  
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
2  
1 of 15
No
No
5  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (10)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (9)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (8)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
No
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (21)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
No
2 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
2 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902QY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501BC )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0147 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X012G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0EIQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
5 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
ameliorates  epilepsy
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map

1-52

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:15,892,116..15,906,716 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
13F18-13F18
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}Gβ13FEP1071 and P{EP}EP1458&P{EP}EP1522
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
13F-14A
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
14A-14A
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
13F16-14A1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Determined by comparing Celera genomic sequence with sequence from BDGP BAC and P1 clones.
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location

1-51.5

Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (41)
Genomic Clones (19)
cDNA Clones (187)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: shi CG18102

    Source for merge of: shi anon-WO0153538.12 anon-WO0153538.13 anon-WO0153538.14

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of shi anon-WO0153538.12 anon-WO0153538.13 anon-WO0153538.14 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Other Comments

    shi is required to coordinate recruitment of Clathrin and AP2 during synaptic vesicle formation.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against shi profoundly promotes the wg-signaling pathway.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: binucleate cells.

    Dl is not endocytosed in shi mutants.

    shi dependent retrieval of secreted sog protein is required for formation of the sog protein gradient across the dorsal side of the blastoderm embryo.

    A P{UAS-shits1.K} transgene has been used to show that synaptic transmission from mushroom body neurons is required during memory retrieval but not during acquisition or storage.

    shi has a role in maintaining normal heart function.

    shi mutants have been used to show that there are two functionally and topographically distinct pools of synaptic vesicles, exo/endo cycling and reserve pools.

    Fluorescent Ca-sensitive dye, Ca Crimson, is used to monitor presynaptic Ca dynamics.

    In presynaptic terminals α-Adaptin defines a network-like membrane structure to which the GTPase dynamin is recruited. α-Adaptin is necessary for the formation of clathrin coated pits and participates in the dynamin-dependent release of coated vesicles from the membrane surface. Results suggest an α-Adaptin-dependent control of the vesicle cycle that maintains the balance between the amount of vesicle- and surface-associated membranes.

    Overexpression of different constitutively active forms of N in shi mutant flies indicates that shi function is not necessary for transduction of the signal downstream of N, even when the receptor, N, is integrated in the plasma membrane. When wild-type N is activated by its ligand Dl, shi is required in both signaling and receiving cells for normal singling out of precursors.

    The structure of the protein encoded by the second, stnB ORF suggests a possible role in membrane trafficking, allowing an interpretation of the interaction seen between the various 'stoned' and shi mutants.

    The two isoforms of dynamin detected in wild type and shi mutants are associated with two different pellet fractions of head homogenates. At least one isoform is membrane-associated. Normal distribution of dynamin is not affected by heat shock, block of the GTP cycle or the presence of stabilised microtubules in wild type or shi mutants. Results suggest the two isoforms are likely to be involved in separate cellular compartments rather than different functional states in the same membrane-cycling pathway.

    Recycling of synaptic vesicle proteins is blocked in temperature sensitive mutants of shi. Similar inhibition of dye uptake is also seen. Vesicle recycling after the block can occur in the absence of extracellular calcium. BWSV induces calcium-independent exocytosis at nerve terminals. It is most likely that calcium is required for the endocytic recycling of synaptic vesicles.

    shi gene product is thought to provide the motor for vesicular transport during endocytosis.

    Mosaic analysis within muscles demonstrates the developmental focus of the shi mutant phenotype is the muscle itself. The normal shi function, endocytosis, is essential in muscle tissue during a sensitive stage of myogenesis in early pupae.

    Mutations at stnA show allele-specific interactions with mutations at dnc and shi. A suppressor of stnA, Su(stn) has been identified. The stnA gene product interacts directly or indirectly with the cAMP second messenger system, synaptic membrane recycling pathway and with biogenic amine metabolism.

    Expression of shi is particularly high in CNS and PNS throughout neuronal development.

    The shi locus encodes Drosophila dynamin.

    shi has been cloned and sequenced.

    Studies of the neuromuscular junctions of heat-treated shi1 flies indicate that paralysis is associated with loss of synaptic vesicles. Examination of the neurogenic region of the embryos reveals numerous packets of extracellular vesicles and coated pits blocked in endocytosis.

    The shibire locus is characterized by its temperature-sensitive alleles, which are reversibly paralyzed by exposure to 29oC, but are essentially normal at 22oC (Grigliatti, Hall, Rosenbluth and Suzuki, 1973). Exposure of developing animals to the restrictive temperature for pulses of one to several hours leads to a plethora of developmental defects, which are specific for the stage treated (Poodry, Hall and Suzuki, 1973) (see shi1 allele record. Short exposures to restrictive temperatures at the time of delamination of the neuroblasts from the neurogenic ectoderm leads to excess neurogenesis at the expense of epidermogenesis, as seen in the neurogenic mutants (Poodry, 1990). Differentiation of myoblasts and neuroblasts is inhibited in shi1 embryonic cells in vitro at 30oC (Buzin, Dewhurst and Seecof, 1978). Embryonic neurons cultured at 30oC show reduced adhesion to the substrate, retardation of growth cone formation and suppressed neuron formation and elongation; reversed by shift to permissive temperature (Kim and Wu, 1987). Lethal embryos disorganized by the restrictive temperature can be cultured in vivo as tumorous masses (Poodry). Eye-antenna discs can also be cultured as tumorous masses for several transfer generations (Williams, 1981). Primary in vivo culture of cut leg imaginal discs leads to an exceptionally high rate of transdetermination (Poodry). The temperature-sensitive alleles differ in the severity of their paralysis, recovery period, the restrictive temperature for developmental effects and in their viability as hemizygotes. They are all hypomorphs, being recessive and having a more extreme expression in combination with a deficiency than when homozygous. A wild-type paternal gene can rescue an egg from a homozygous mother only after 10 hr of development (Swanson and Poodry, 1976). Of the developmental effects tested, all are autonomous in mosaics generated by somatic recombination or in gynandromorphs (Poodry). The developmental effects on bristles is not enhanced or suppressed by the presence of temperature-sensitive alleles of N; shi is epistatic to N (Lujan, 1981). Physiological studies of shi have revealed the loss of transients in electroretinograms (Kelley and Suzuki, 1974) and failure of neuromuscular transmission at the restrictive temperature (Ikeda, Ozawa and Hagiwara, 1976; Siddiqi and Benzer, 1976), though axonal conduction and muscle membrane excitability are unimpaired (Ikeda, Ozawa and Hagiwara, 1976). Exposure of shi1 adults to 29oC causes the depletion of synaptic vesicles from the neuromuscular synapse and their replacement with large cisternae (Poodry and Edgar, 1979; Koenig, Saito and Ikeda, 1983). Accumulation of acetyl choline is reduced at the restrictive temperature, not because of reduced synthesis but because of an abnormally rapid rate of release from the cell, which is not reduced by inhibiting tetrodotoxin-sensitive nerve activity (Wu, Merneking and Barker, 1983). Endocytosis is reversibly blocked in the nerve terminus (Kosaka and Ikeda, 1983a; Masur, Kim and Wu, 1990) and may limit the ability of nerves to regenerate synaptic vesicles. Neuromuscular transmission temperature is sensitive in mosaics in which the neuron but not the muscle is mutant, but not in the converse situation (Koenig and Ikeda, 1983b). During recovery from exposure to 30oC shi1 muscles display a multimodal distribution of miniature excitatory junction potential amplitudes never seen in wild type (Ikeda and Koenig, 1987). Further, as the temperature is increased the amplitude of evoked excitatory junction potentials decreases; the numbers of vesicles per synapse displays a correlated decrease (Koenig, Kosaka and Ikeda, 1989). Endocytosis is also blocked in the garland cells (Kosaka and Ikeda, 1983a). Vesiculation of cell membranes results in fusion of blastoderm cells (Swanson and Poodry, 1981) and vesiculation of surface membranes accompanies secretion of protein epicuticle (Poodry).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Grigliatti, 1971.

    Etymology

    "shibire" means "paralysed" in Japanese.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 134 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-WO0153538.12
    anon-WO0153538.13
    anon-WO0153538.14
    l(1)VII
    l(1)shi
    shi
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    Name Synonyms