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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\so
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
sine oculis
Annotation Symbol
CG11121
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003460
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
sine oculis (so) encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor that functions with the product of eya as a transcriptional co-activator. It contributes to both cell and tissue fate specification, promotion of cell proliferation and suppression of apoptosis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Drl, mda, medusa

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-56
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:7419350..7434872
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (18 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Sobp; FB:FBgn0033654
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ey; FB:FBgn0005558
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:fl(2)d; FB:FBgn0000662
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:eya; FB:FBgn0000320
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:gro; FB:FBgn0001139
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000044272
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000044272
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in circadian rhythm
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:mnb; FB:FBgn0259168
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in spermatogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000044272
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000044272
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000044272
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the SIX/Sine oculis homeobox family. (Q27350)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
sine oculis (so) encodes a homeobox-containing transcription factor that functions with the product of eya as a transcriptional co-activator. It contributes to both cell and tissue fate specification, promotion of cell proliferation and suppression of apoptosis. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SINE OCULIS HOMEOBOX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Sine oculis homeobox (SIX) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription and play important role in development. They are characterized by 120 amino acid SIX-type DNA-binding domain N-terminal to a homeodomain. (Adapted from FBrf0232555, FBrf0128773 and PMID:18797923).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for visual system development. May transcriptionally regulate genes necessary for optic lobe invagination and Bolwig's nerve formation.
(UniProt, Q27350)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
so: sine oculis (J.C. Hall)
Ocelli always absent; eyes usually reduced to small groups of ommatidia, and occasionally missing; eye field sometimes in form of an eye stalk protruding from head with an irregular arrangement of ommatidia; heavy ommatidial disruption with many receptor cells missing. Optic lobes reduced in size, and many flies have no lamina. The reduced volume of adult optic lobes is due to accentuated degeneration of precursor neurons that occurs to a certain degree in normal pupal development (Fischbach, 1983); the increased severity in the mutant includes degeneration of axons in second optic chiasma (Fischbach and Technau, 1984); sol enhances this kind of degeneration, but acts on a separate set of precursors for columnar visual system neurons--as confirmed by anatomical analysis of sol; so double mutant, which ends up with tiny, rudimentary optic lobes (Fischbach and Technau, 1984); sol; so also leads to a central brain that is smaller than normal due to missing afferents from visual system (Fischbach and Technau, 1984); more specifically, there is a reduction in number of axons in anterior optic track in so, and combining so with sol causes a further reduction, but again, these two genes act independently on separate subsets of such axons (Fischbach and Lyly-Hunerberg, 1983). Histological studies reveal that the eye-antenna disc in third-instar larvae appears normal until differentiation begins, at which time cell death is observed (Hofbauer and Campos-Ortega). More extreme at elevated temperatures; lethal at 30; temperature-sensitive period for eye defect in third instar. Survival sensitive to elevated temperature at all developmental stages (Ransom, 1980, DIS 55: 126). Mosaic studies demonstrate that so acts in developing eye tissue and that the resulting reduction in retinal innervation leads to death of cells in the lamina and breakdown of medulla and lobula-complex neuropil (Fischback and Technau). Nonphototactic (Benzer, 1967, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 58: 1112-19) and visual orientation almost absent (Bulthoff, 1982, DIS 58: 31). Studies of circadian rhythms in so show eclosion to be normally periodic (Engelmann and Honneger, 1966); adult activity rhythms are robust, in that so, even when thoroughly eyeless, responds to light:dark cues such that it entrains to these conditions (is periodically active vs. inactive, and anticipates the environmental transitions) and subsequently free-runs with obvious circadian periodicities in constant darkness (Helfrich and Engelmann, 1983; Dushay, Rosbash, and Hall, 1989); however, these behavioral rhythms are frequently aberrant, e.g., with "split" active components appearing after several days of free-run and with dual periodicities extractable from the locomotor data (Helfrich, 1986); nearly all adults are dual-period when so combined with sol (Helfrich, 1986).
soD
Heterozygote has very small glazed eyes; more extreme than Drmio/+;soD/+/+ has a very clear phenotype, but weaker than that of Drmio/+ (i.e., about the size of Gla/+, but not glazed). Heterozygote has excellent viability; homozygous lethal.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - homeodomain - Sine oculis and Eyes absent form a complex that regulates multiple steps in eye development - contributes to both cell and tissue fate specification, promotion of cell proliferation and suppression of apoptosis

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\so for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.48

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088970
2786
416
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.8 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0089177
45.0
416
8.82
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

416 (aa); 45 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\so using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

Additional Descriptive Data

Embryonic stage 6-7 expression of so is observed in the anlages of the optic lobe and the stomatogastric nervous system, and at the anterior lip of the ventral furrow.

Blastoderm expression is posterior to that of Optix.

At embryonic stage 12 so is expressed in Bolwig's organ.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{A92}so7
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}so7.GAL4
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{so7-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\so in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 38 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 36 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of so
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of so
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 52 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 52 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
viable (with so3)
viable (with so9)
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
eye disc & neuron
glial cell & larval optic lobe
lamina & neuron
neuroblast & embryonic optic lobe primordium
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (5)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (10)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D64 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150A4G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0D0F )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X065A )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G083I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
5 of 10
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 2 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-56
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    43B3-43C1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}cosk16101 and P{EP}CG1600EP398
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    43C1-43C1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    43C-43C
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Notes

    1 or 2cM to the left of amos.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (22)
    Genomic Clones (19)
     
    cDNA Clones (29)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    The following allelic combinations have an increasingly severe eye phenotype, in which the size of the adult eye is reduced until it is lost completely: so5/so9 < so9/so9 < so9/so3 < so1/so1.

    The consensus sequence GTAANYNGANAYC/G is necessary for so binding to DNA.

    RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

    Mutant embryos lack the corpus cardiacum and stomatogastric nervous system.

    gish, so, ey and hh act in the posterior region of the eye disc to prevent precocious glial cell migration.

    Bolwig's organ formation is governed by ato, the expression of which is under the control of hh, eya and so.

    so and eya are two mediators of the eye inducing activity of ey. ey appears to induce the initial expression of so and eya in the eye disc. so and eya then participate in a positive feedback loop that regulates the expression of all three genes. In the embryonic head, however, so acts in parallel to ey and toy. The epistatic relationships among the corresponding vertebrate homologs are very similar to those observed in Drosophila.

    so and eya regulate common steps in eye development including cell proliferation, patterning and neuronal development.

    Molecular and developmental analysis reveals so encodes a homeodomain-containing protein that is expressed and required in the unpatterned epithelium prior to morphogenesis. Analysis of mosaic clones supported an essential developmental role for so in eye development.

    The mutant phenotype demonstrates the homeodomain containing so gene product is involved in the specification of the larval and adult visual system development during embryogenesis.

    Observations of mutants support the proposal that axon fascicles can make at least some pathfinding decisions independently of their neighbours.

    Mutants of so display a degraded ERG response. Eye development is also abnormal having structural defects within the rhabdomeres of the photoreceptor cells.

    In tests of locomotor activity rhythms, singly mutant mnb adults are basically normal, but a high proportion of mnb so double mutants show complex rhythmicities (dual circadian periodicities) with about 20% being arrhythmic (3 times greater than wild type).

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer

    Milani, 1939.

    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 47 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Sine oculis
    ami
    med
    old
    so
    (Charlton-Perkins et al., 2021, Ma et al., 2021, Ordway et al., 2021, Creed et al., 2020, Zhang et al., 2020, Alejevski et al., 2019, Gaspar et al., 2019, Nash et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Davis and Rebay, 2018, Kumar, 2018, Palliyil et al., 2018, Valsecchi et al., 2018, Zhu et al., 2018, Davis and Rebay, 2017, Davis et al., 2017, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Aggarwal et al., 2016, Apitz and Salecker, 2016, Bernardo-Garcia et al., 2016, Bürglin and Affolter, 2016, Dubois et al., 2016, Iyer et al., 2016, Jin et al., 2016, Jin et al., 2016, Peng et al., 2016, Weasner et al., 2016, Chakrabarti et al., 2015, de Taffin et al., 2015, Doggett et al., 2015, Head et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Anderson et al., 2014, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Blaquiere et al., 2014, Karandikar et al., 2014, Piñeiro et al., 2014, Tanaka-Matakatsu et al., 2014, Atkins et al., 2013, Ghezzi et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Marinho et al., 2013, Naval-Sánchez et al., 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Weasner and Kumar, 2013, Liu et al., 2012, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Wang and Sun, 2012, Brockmann et al., 2011, Datta et al., 2011, Gehring, 2011, Hidalgo et al., 2011, Park et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Blanco et al., 2010, Chang et al., 2010, Oros et al., 2010, Popov et al., 2010, Salzer and Kumar, 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Voolstra et al., 2010, Liu et al., 2009, Salzer and Kumar, 2009, Schuettengruber et al., 2009, Weasner and Kumar, 2009, Yoshii et al., 2009, Anderson and Kumar, 2008, Braid and Verheyen, 2008, Hayashi et al., 2008, Henderson and Kumar, 2008, McNabb and Truman, 2008, Salzer and Kumar, 2008, Tanaka-Matakatsu and Du, 2008, Tarone et al., 2008, Umezaki and Tomioka, 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Weasner and Kumar, 2008, Wülbeck et al., 2008, Yao et al., 2008, Aerts et al., 2007, Christensen and Cook, 2007.3.22, Christensen and Cook, 2007.3.22, Curtiss et al., 2007, de Velasco et al., 2007, Fic et al., 2007, Jemc and Rebay, 2007, Kumar and Datta, 2007, Kumar and Henderson, 2007, Kumar and Luhur, 2007, Kumar and Salzer, 2007, Kumar and Weasner, 2007, Murakami et al., 2007, Togane et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Weasner et al., 2007, Zeitlinger et al., 2007, Anderson et al., 2006, Friedrich, 2006, Garcia-Murillas et al., 2006, Kwon and Montell, 2006, Mahoney et al., 2006, Ostrin et al., 2006, Wang and Montell, 2006, Roederer et al., 2005, Wang and Montell, 2005, Yang et al., 2005, Punzo et al., 2004, Yoshii et al., 2004, Chang et al., 2003, Fabrizio et al., 2003, Rieger et al., 2003, Silver et al., 2003, Zordan et al., 2001, Levine et al., 1997)
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0004392
    • FBgn0004874
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