SOD, superoxide dismutase, CuZnSOD, Cu-Zn SOD, cSOD
Gene model reviewed during 5.45
Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.
Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Gene model reviewed during 5.42
Gene model reviewed during 5.44
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
Gene model reviewed during 6.28
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Sod1 using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\Sod1 in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Overexpression of Sod significantly increases adult life span by up to 48%. Life span is affected by epistatic interactions between the transgene and alleles at other loci.
The effect is clearly demonstrated using Scer\FRT constructs to control for genetic background effects.
In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
mRNA levels increase at adult day 5 in strain showing extended longevity phenotype (ELP).
Mutations in Sod individuals, as in humans, cause neuropathology. Missense mutations expected to destabilise Sod subunits and dimer assembly significantly impair the activity of normal subunits in heterozygotes for a wild type allele, resulting in significantly lower enzyme activity than expected in heterozygotes.
Transgenic flies carrying three copies of Sod+ and three copies of Cat+ exhibited as much as one third extension of life span, a longer mortality rate doubling time, a lower amount of protein oxidative damage and a delayed loss in physical performance. Results support the free radical hypothesis of aging.
The extent to which a synthetic Drosophila-bovine transgene can compensate for loss of the endogenous Sod through the rescue of specific pleiotrophic phenotypes characteristic of a Sod null mutant is investigated.
Over expression of Sod by 32-42% above normal, using a Sod transgene, has a minor/insignificant effect on life span of the flies and their ability to withstand experimental oxidative stress, induced by paraquat or hypoxia. Those transgenics that show a small increase in life span also show a improvement in resistance to hypoxia but not paraquat. The maximum life span is not affected.
The more active Sod mutations are associated with postponed aging in laboratory stocks. No relationship was found with these mutations and a direct increase in life span or later fecundity, but this failure arose from a lack of experimental power. This negative result is not a pertinent refutation of the free radical mechanism of aging.
Comparison of CpG distribution in the coding region of 121 genes from six species supports the mCpG mutational hotspot explanation of CpG suppression in methylated species at position II-III and III-I.
Phylogenetic trees for 25 Cu-Zn superoxide dismutases (including D.melanogaster Sod and Dvir\Sod) and 31 Mn/Fe superoxide dismutases (including D.melanogaster Sod2) have been constructed and the evolutionary rate of change for the two groups of proteins has been compared.
The consequences of hypermorphic levels are studied using a duplication of a chromosomal region carrying Sod: confers increased resistance to ionizing radiation but decreased resistance to superoxide generating agents. Sod plays a vital role in maintaining normal adult longevity.
The structural gene for Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), a homodimer of 15,000 subunit molecular weight that contains two Cu++ and two Zn++ per molecule. Enzyme catalyzes the dismutation of the superoxide anion, O2-, to H2O2, which in turn is converted into H2O by catalase and peroxidases. Enzyme purified (Lee, Ayala and Misra, 1981); shows homology to homologous mammalian enzymes but does not crossreact with anti-bovine-erythrocyte-SOD antibodies; specific activity 1.5 times that of other species. Amino acid sequence determined by Lee, Friedman and Ayala (1985b); 151 amino acid residues with molecular weight 15,750. Enzyme levels show little variation during development; slight rise in activity during adulthood (Graf and Ayala, 1986).