Alternative transcripts labeled with isoform names according to (FBrf0134774)
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.46
2.3, 2.1, 1.9 (longest cDNA)
None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.
Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:12872120, PubMed:9533958). In the presence of Tl, crystal structures show one Tl molecule bound to a spaetzle C-106 homodimer (PubMed:24733933, PubMed:24282309). However, the active complex probably consists of two Tl molecules bound to a spaetzle C-106 homodimer (PubMed:24282309, PubMed:24733933). This is supported by in vitro experiments which also show binding of the spaetzle C-106 dimer to 2 Tl receptors (PubMed:12872120). Ligand binding induces conformational changes in the extracellular domain of Tl (PubMed:24282309). This may enable a secondary homodimerization interface at the C-terminus of the Tl extracellular domain (PubMed:24282309).
During embryonic development, easter cleaves the signal peptide and also generates the C-terminal 12 kDa active fragment, C-106 (except for isoform 8.24 and isoform 11.27 as they do not contain the cleavage site) (PubMed:9533958). During the immune response, cleaved in the same manner by SPE (PubMed:16399077).
Extracellular forms of isoform 8.19 and isoform 11.7 are glycosylated.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\spz using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\spz in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Gene expression is increased in response to the presence of two copies of Scer\GAL4hs.PB.
NT1 amd spz are expressed in the embryonic lateral muscles in a complementary pattern, suggesting that they may aid targeting by different axonal projections and promote the survival of distinct subsets of neurons.
The mature, processed, form of the spz gene product binds to the Tl ectodomain with high affinity and with a stoichiometry of one spz dimer to two Tl receptors. The spz pro-domain sequence acts to prevent interaction of the spz cytokine and its receptor Tl.
ea can directly cleave spz at a unique position, the spz carboxy-terminal fragment generated has the biological and biochemical properties of the polarising activity of spz, it exists as a disulfide-linked dimer and appears to share structural similarities with the nerve growth factor and the neurotrophin family of growth factor ligands.
The embryonic regulatory pathway, comprising the gene products between spz and cact (Tl, tub and pll) but not the genes acting upstream or downstream (ea and dl), is involved in the induction of the Drs gene in adults. Mutations that affect the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides dramatically lower the resistance of flies to infection.
Does not belong to the proliferative class of genes involved in Malignant Brain Tumor (MBT) syndrome.
spz is the soluble extracellular factor (polarising activity) that induces ventral structures when injected into the extracellular space of embryos.Proteolytic processing of spz product generates a polarised form of spz which defines embryonic dorsal ventral polarity by activation of Tl on the ventral side of the embryo.
Double mutant combinations of spz with ea alleles demonstrate that spatial regulation of ea activity by localized zymogen activation is a key initial event in defining the polarity of the dorsal-ventral embryonic pattern.