Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\swa
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
swallow
Annotation Symbol
CG3429
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003655
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Has a role in localizing bicoid mRNA at the anterior margin of the oocyte during oogenesis, and a poorly characterized role in nuclear divisions in early embryogenesis. (UniProt, P40688)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

sww, fs(1)1502

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-16
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:6363418..6365708
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (7 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
enables mRNA binding
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
traceable author statement
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Has a role in localizing bicoid mRNA at the anterior margin of the oocyte during oogenesis, and a poorly characterized role in nuclear divisions in early embryogenesis.
    (UniProt, P40688)
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    swa: swallow
    Maternal-effect lethal; homozygous females sterile. Some blastoderms irregularly populated, with some areas on surface devoid of nuclei, others display asynchronous nuclear divisions and nuclei of non uniform size. Gastrulation occurs before full complement of nuclei achieved; mitosis continues into gastrulation. Developmental arrest at time of first muscular activity. In swa2 development normal but abnormal larval mouth parts prevent feeding. Mosaic studies with swa1 indicate that the gene functions in germ line (Perrimon and Gans, 1981, Dev. Biol. 100: 365-73). Morphology of developing embryos shows variable temperature-sensitive failure of head-segment development and abdominal segmentation defects. Anterior defects more severe at 29, and posterior ones cold sensitive, strongly enhanced at 18. ftz expression pattern abnormal; number of stripes varies from three (PS 2, 4, & 6) at 18 to seven at 29. Unlike wild-type cytoplasm, anterior cytoplasm from embryos of swa mothers ineffective in rescuing bcd phenotype; also embryos from swa females resistant to the bcd-phenocopying effects of removing anterior cytoplasm (Fronhofer and Nusslein-Volhard).
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\swa for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.52

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0070922
    2022
    548
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)

    2.1 (northern blot)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0070884
    62.1
    548
    6.07
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)

    60 (kD observed)

    Comments
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

    May be a homo- or heterodimer.

    (UniProt, P40688)
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\swa using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    organism

    Comment: maternally deposited

    northern blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    The 2.1 kb maternal swa transcript is detected in early embryos and adult females. swa is first detected by in situ hybridization in stage S3 egg chambers, and reaches its highest levels in the nurse cells and oocytes of stage S10 egg chambers. At stage S14, swa is uniformly distributed in oocytes. During early embryogenesis, swa is distributed uniformly in the embryo, but as nuclei migrate to the periphery, it localizes to the peripheral cytoplasm surrounding the nuclear layer. By gastrulation, swa is no longer detected.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    organism | restricted

    Comment: maternally deposited swa protein is quickly degraded

    western blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference

    Comment: reference states 0-6 hr AEL

    Additional Descriptive Data

    swa protein is expressed throughout oogenesis, and in 0-6 hr embryos. During oogenesis, swa protein is first detected in stage S5 egg chambers, and is cytoplasmic. Oocytes of stage S5-S6 egg chambers accumulate swa protein. swa protein is detected in nurse cells starting at stage S7, until stage S10. swa protein continues to be localized in the cytoplasm for a short time after fertilization, but by embryonic cycle 8, swa protein is nuclear. swa protein is not detected by the retracted germ band stage.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\swa in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 12 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of swa
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of swa
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906T8 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503VW )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03KP )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Daphnia pulex
    Water flea
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      May be a homo- or heterodimer.
      (UniProt, P40688 )
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      X
      Recombination map
      1-16
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      5F4-5F4
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1402&P{EP}CG15893EP1634 and P{EP}Ctr1AEP1364&P{EP}EP1445
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      5E6-5E7
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (9)
      Genomic Clones (12)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (82)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: swa anon-WO0140519.70

      Additional comments

      Source for merge of swa anon-WO0140519.70 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

      Other Comments

      swa is required for overall actin organisation and for the maintenance of a distinct subset of microtubules in the oocyte.

      swa protein transiently but tightly co-localizes with bcd RNA in mid-oogenesis, at stage 10. swa protein also localizes to the anterior pole of the oocyte in the absence of bcd RNA. This localization does not require exu protein but does require microtubules. ctp is a swa-binding protein. swa protein may act as an adaptor for the dynein complex enabling dynein to transport bcd RNA along microtubules to their minus ends at the anterior pole of the oocyte.

      In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

      Compared to the swa sequence swaΨ exhibits eight deletions in the coding region ranging from 3 to 138bp. No insertions are found. Data suggests that the preponderance of relatively large mutations is likely to be a general property of mutation.

      swa function is required to maintain the position of several localised mRNAs and localised ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes in the cortex of the oocyte (including bcd and hts mRNA).

      There is not a simple relationship between the position of the swa protein and the site of its action in bcd RNA localisation. Studies of the distribution of swa protein during early embryogenesis reveals a cycle whereby the swa gene product enters each nucleus at the beginning of mitosis, occupies a position complementary to that of condensed chromatin, and leaves each nucleus at the end of mitosis.

      Some blastoderms irregularly populated, with some areas on surface devoid of nuclei, others display asynchronous nuclear divisions and nuclei of non uniform size. Gastrulation occurs before full complement of nuclei achieved; mitosis continues into gastrulation. Developmental arrest at time of first muscular activity. Morphology of developing embryos shows variable temperature-sensitive failure of head-segment development and abdominal segmentation defects. Anterior defects more severe at 29oC and posterior ones cold-sensitive, strongly enhanced at 18oC. ftz expression pattern abnormal; number of stripes varies from three (PS 2, 4, & 6) at 18oC to seven at 29oC.

      The swa genomic region contains two copies of a swa-like sequence. Only one copy is thought to be the functional swa gene, the other copy (swaΨ) is thought to be non-functional.

      Mutations in maternal anterior class gene swa do not interact with RpII140wimp.

      The effects of taxol treatment on swa mutants suggest general roles for the swa gene product in the multi-step bcd mRNA localization process.

      swa mutants exhibit weak anterior deletions and segmentation defects in the abdomen.

      Mature follicles are immunologically stained for asymmetric distribution of ecdysteroid-related antigen. During late oogenesis localisation of the antigen changes dramatically suggesting the antigen plays a role in early embryogenesis and, perhaps, in pattern formation.

      swa mutations disrupt the third stage of bcd RNA localization during oogenesis, localization to the cortex at the anterior end of the oocyte.

      Unlike wild-type cytoplasm, anterior cytoplasm from embryos of swa mothers ineffective in rescuing bcd phenotype; also embryos from swa females resistant to the bcd-phenocopying effects of removing anterior cytoplasm.

      Embryos carrying mutations at swa display clypeolabrum defects.

      Mutations in swa affect cephalogenesis.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 31 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0044557
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (167)