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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\tra
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
transformer
Annotation Symbol
CG16724
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003741
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Member of the regulatory pathway controlling female somatic sexual differentiation, regulated by Sxl. Activates dsx female-specific splicing by promoting the formation of a splicing enhancer complex which consists of tra, tra2 and sr proteins. Together with tra-2, plays a role in switching fru splicing from the male-specific pattern to the female-specific pattern through activation of the female-specific fru 5'-splice site. No known function in males. (UniProt, P11596)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

Dmtra

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:16,590,059..16,591,050 [-]
Recombination map
3-44
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:16590059..16591050
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (13 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:tra2; FB:FBgn0003742
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
involved_in RNA splicing
traceable author statement
involved_in sex determination
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Member of the regulatory pathway controlling female somatic sexual differentiation, regulated by Sxl. Activates dsx female-specific splicing by promoting the formation of a splicing enhancer complex which consists of tra, tra2 and sr proteins. Together with tra-2, plays a role in switching fru splicing from the male-specific pattern to the female-specific pattern through activation of the female-specific fru 5'-splice site. No known function in males.
(UniProt, P11596)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
tra: transformer (M. McKeown and J.M. Belote)
XX flies homozygous for tra transformed into sterile males with fully developed sex combs, male-colored abdomen, male abdominal tergites and plates, external and internal male genitalia. Mate readily with females. Testes rudimentary, without sperm, and with ovarian nurse-cell-like cells [Brown and King, 1961]. Testes reduced in size, but of normal color and shape. Transformed female slightly larger than normal male, developmental rate about that of female. X/X/Y; tra/tra also sterile. tra not required in male since X/Y, tra/tra flies are normal males. X/X/X and X/X/Y, tra/tra/tra like diploid, i.e. male in phenotype, but with larger wing cells as expected of triploids. Normal testis anlagen transplanted into tra female becomes attached to duct apparatus and produces sperm. Not needed for female germ cell development since X/X, tra/tra pole cells transplanted into a wild-type female embryo give rise to progeny of both sexes [Marsh and Wieschaus, 1978]. Cell autonomous in mitotic clones [Baker and Ridge, 1980, Genetics 94: 383-423].
Summary (Interactive Fly)

RNA splice factor - Sex determination - productively spliced in the presence of Sex lethal - Sexual dimorphism of body size is controlled by dosage of and by the sex-determining gene

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\tra for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Gene model includes transcript postulated to be a non-coding isoform (FBrf0045777).

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0075364
687
197
FBtr0100244
862
36
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.2, 1.0 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0075123
24.1
197
12.42
FBpp0099630
4.4
36
8.79
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

197 (aa); 22 (kD predicted)

Comments

tra and tra2 proteins as well as a set of SR

proteins isolated from HeLa cells were shown to be necessary for the

formation of a complex which commits the dsx pre-mRNA to the

female-specific splicing pathway. The factors bind to a regulatory element

located downstream of the 3' female-specific splice site.

tra protein binds the 13 nucleotide cis regulatory elements of dsx pre-mRNA, strongly suggesting a role in the female-specific splicing of dsx pre-mRNA.

External Data
Domain

RS domain directs localization of proteins to the speckled subnuclear compartment and the purpose of this localization is to allow colocalization and co-concentration of components of the splicing and splicing regulatory machinery to permit relatively high rates and/or efficiencies of reaction and interaction.

(UniProt, P11596)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\tra using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\tra in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 24 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 40 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of tra
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of tra
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 41 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 41 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult brain & neuron | medial | female
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190KUS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-44
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:16,590,059..16,591,050 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    73A10-73A10
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)j10E8j10E8&P{PZ}l(3)1053210532 and P{PZ}Baldspot02281
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    73A8-73A9
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    73A7-73A10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (16)
    Genomic Clones (9)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (5)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of
        Additional comments
        Other Comments

        In gynanders (XX/XO mosaics) feminised by traF.U2af50, traF protein in XO somatic cells of the gonad is sufficient (even in the absence of detectable SxlF protein) to elicit all nonautonomous feminising signals required by XX germ cells, as well as all other somatic-cell functions required for normal oogenesis, so that functional eggs are produced. However, some of these feminised gynanders fail to lay their eggs, indicating that there are diplo-X cells outside the gonad for which traF.U2af50-feminised haplo-X cells cannot substitute.

        The Hrp59 protein binds preferentially to a subset of mRNAs, including tra mRNA.

        tra is necessary in order to prevent the continued presence of male-specific somatic gonadal precursors in the female somatic gonad.

        Ectopic somatic expression of the female product of tra is sufficient to feminise XY germ cells. This feminisation depends upon the tra2 gene, but does not seem to require a functional dsx gene. However, feminisation of XY germ cells by the female product of tra can be blocked by the male form of dsx protein.

        The crystal structure has been determined at 2.6A resolution of the complex formed between two tandemly arranged RNA-binding domains of the Sxl protein and a 12 nucleotide, single stranded RNA derived from the tra polypyrimidine tract. The two RNA-binding domains have their β-sheet platforms facing each other to form a V-shaped cleft. The RNA is bound in this cleft, where the tra UGUUUUUUU sequence is specifically recognized by the Sxl protein.

        tra is not required for the development of the internal organisation of the male terminal segment.

        Mutants carrying a heat inducible female form of tra exhibit indiscriminate sexual behaviour. Studies suggest a disturbed nervous system, and not self-stimulation, is the most probable cause for this behaviour. Sexual behaviour is irreversibly programmed during a critical period as a result of the activity or inactivity or a single control gene.

        The female nervous system is substantially responsible for controlling the process of sperm transport from the bursa copulatrix to the storage organs.

        tra and tra2 regulate sex-specific splicing of fru, inducing female-specific splicing of fru by activating the female-specific fru 5' splice site.

        Sex determining genes tra, ix and dsx have no role in regulating the template organisation of the X chromosome(s) for dosage compensation.

        The Sxl RBD1+2/tra PPT interaction is analysed by chemical shift perturbation mapping of the protein backbone. Data suggests the two domains respond quite differently to the presence of tra PPT RNA.

        The roX1 gene shows a male-specific expression pattern in adult flies. roX1 expression is dependent on Sxl, but is independent of tra activity, and is positively regulated by genes of the dosage compensation system such as mle.

        The simultaneous influence of different male and female pheromones on male courtship behaviour is measured using tra mosaic flies.

        fl(2)d function is necessary for the female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA, but not for the female-specific splicing of dsx pre-mRNA.

        Both HeLa and Kc cell nuclear extracts have been used for UV cross-linking experiments to determine which proteins bind to dsxRE as part of the native tra- and tra2-dependent dsx enhancer complex (dsxEC). Rbp1 and SRp30 have been identified that bind the 13-nucleotide repeats and purine rich element (PRE), respectively, of the dsx repeat element (dsxRE).

        Anatomical and behavioural studies of fru mutants are consistent with the function of fru being downstream of tra and tra2.

        Both of the RNA-binding domains (RBDs) of Sxl are required for efficient and specific binding of Sxl protein to the tra cis-acting element.

        Female specific form of the tra gene, expressed using the GAL4 system, has been used to give a pattern of feminization. Feminization of certain brain structures in the male is associated with different types of sexual behaviour. These intersexual flies produce a large variety of pheromonal bouquets which combine male and female pheromones in different amounts. There is a significant correlation between the production of different pheromones and the induction of different male behaviours.

        Using the Scer\GAL4-Scer\UAS system to express tra males have been produced with regionally feminized brains. Flies feminized in a portion of the antennal lobes or in a subset of the mushroom bodies court both males and females.

        Amino acid sequences required to direct the tra protein to nuclear speckles have been identified. The tra nuclear localisation can be uncoupled from localisation to the speckle domains. An amino sequence in tra is capable of directing a heterologous protein to nuclear speckles of mammalian cells, regions of the nucleus previously shown to contain high concentrations of spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs and splicing factors. tra2 and tra colocalise in the speckle domains.

        Genetic and molecular analyses suggest that vir is required for female-specific splicing of Sxl and of tra pre-mRNA.

        Female-specific expression of genes in the germline is dependent on a somatic signalling pathway which requires the sex-non-specific tra2 but not the sex-specific tra and dsx.

        l(3)73Ah shares 3' untranslated sequence with tra.

        Regulated alternative splicing of dsx pre-mRNA requires the dsxRE splicing enhancer, dsx repeat element. The activity of dsxRE requires tra and tra2 and one or more general splicing factors. A purine rich enhancer (PRE) sequence within the RE has been identified, this element functionally synergises with the dsxRE and is required for specific binding of tra2 to the dsxRE. Results demonstrate that positive control of dsx pre-mRNA splicing requires tra- and tra2- dependent assembly of a multiprotein complex on at least two distinct enhancer elements.

        The expression of tra under the control of Scer\GAL4 in sub domains of the male mushroom bodies causes feminisation of the cells in which tra is expressed and a subsequent insertion-specific non-discriminatory courtship behaviour where males court other males as vigorously as females. This supports the notion that at least some sub-domains of the mushroom bodies develop in a sex-specific manner.

        tra is expressed in genetically defined subregions of the male brain, in particular within different domains of the mushroom bodies. Expression in a Scer\GAL4 line that marks a component of the antennal lobe causes males to exhibit nondiscriminatory sexual behaviour (court males and females). Expression in other mushroom body domains has no such effect.

        her- intersexuality cannot be rescued by constitutive tra expression.

        The Sxl splice site consensus is a highly specific sequence, explaining why it can regulate splicing of tra pre-mRNA and autoregulate splicing of its own mRNA.

        The choice of female identity in the germ line is dependent upon a somatic signalling pathway that requires the sex-non-specific tra2 gene but not the sex specific genes tra and dsx.

        The sex-specific requirement of sov in gonadal development is controlled by the somatic sex regulatory genes tra, tra2 and dsx.

        The tra2 product interacts with itself, and with the tra and SF2 products in vitro and in the yeast two-hybrid system.

        The tra gene is regulated by Sxl-dependent 3' splice site blockage. 40 nucleotides immediately upstream of the regulated splice site are sufficient to direct sex-specific regulated splicing.

        tra and dsx control early inductive signals that determine the sex of XX germ cells. tra product present in somatic cells of XY animals, or in backgrounds lacking the sex-determining function of Sxl, is sufficient to support developing XX germ cells through oogenesis.

        There is no cost to a female to receive sperm: lifespan, egg production, egg hatchability and remating rate of females intermittently exposed to males that could (tra mutants) or could not (tud mutants) transfer sperm are not significantly different.

        The genetic hierarchy regulating female germ-line sex determination includes tra, tra2, dsx, fu, otu, ovo, snf and Sxl.

        Female specific splicing of dsx is regulated by tra and tra2, which recruit general, serine/arginine-rich splicing factors to a regulatory element located downstream of a female-specific 3' splice site.

        In vitro system that recapitulates the regulation by Sxl of tra sex-specific splicing developed. Sxl blocks splicing to the non-sex specific, default site in tra by specifically binding to its polypyrimidine tract, blocking the binding of the essential splicing factor U2AF: U2AF then acivates the lower-affinity female-specific site.

        Mutants exhibit defective courtship song.

        UV crosslinking/transfection of Kc cells showed female-specific tra protein binds to 13 nucleotide motif present in 6 copies in the female-specific fourth exon of dsx pre-mRNA.

        The tra-homologous genes from D.simulans, D.erecta, D.hydei and D.virilis have been cloned, sequenced and compared to the D.melanogaster tra gene. This comparison reveals as unusually high degree of evolutionary divergence among the tra coding sequences. In addition there is a highly conserved region within the first intron that may define a cis-acting regulator of sex-specific alternative splicing.

        tra function directs the development of sexually dimorphic skeletal muscles.

        An in vitro splicing system to study the mechanism involved in positive control of dsx female specific splicing by tra and tra2 is used in HeLa cell nuclear extracts.

        Wild type functions of tra and tra2 are necessary in females for the expression of the female specific dsx function. In the absence of tra or tra2 function the alternative pattern of processing produces the dsx mRNA that encodes the male specific dsx protein.

        Cotransfection analyses in which dsx, tra and tra2 cDNAs are expressed in Kc cells revealed that female specific splicing of dsx transcript is positively regulated by tra and tra2 gene products.

        The functions of the arginine/serine-rich RS domains of su(wa) and tra have been studied.

        Cotransfection assays to examine regulatory interactions between specific cis-acting sequence elements of dsx pre-mRNA, and tra and tra2 gene products establish that tra and tra2 function to activate the use of the female specific exon.

        Co-transfection experiments in which Sxl cDNA and the tra gene are expressed in Kc cells demonstrate that the female Sxl-encoded protein binds specifically to the tra transcript at or near the non-sex-specific acceptor site. This implies that the female Sxl gene product is the trans-acting factor that regulates alternative splicing.

        The mechanism of sex determination in the germ line has been analysed.

        The information for proper 3' splice site choice in tra is contained within the regulated intron.

        The nature and function of the 2 different tra RNAs is determined and the mechanisms of their sex-specific regulation is elucidated.

        The tra locus has been molecularly isolated and characterized. P element mediated transformation has demonstrated that a fragment of 2kb is sufficient to supply tra+ function.

        Mutant females are transformed into sterile males.

        XX flies homozygous for tra transformed into sterile males with fully developed sex combs, male-colored abdomen, male abdominal tergites and plates, external and internal male genitalia. Mate readily with females. Testes rudimentary, without sperm and with ovarian nurse-cell-like cells <up>Brown and King, 1961</up>. Testes reduced in size, but of normal color and shape. Transformed female slightly larger than normal male, developmental rate about that of female. X/X/Y; tra/tra also sterile. tra not required in male since X/Y, tra/tra flies are normal males. X/X/X and X/X/Y, tra/tra/tra like diploid, i.e. male in phenotype, but with larger wing cells as expected of triploids. Normal testis anlagen transplanted into tra female becomes attached to duct apparatus and produces sperm. Not needed for female germ cell development since X/X, tra/tra pole cells transplanted into a wild-type female embryo give rise to progeny of both sexes <up>Marsh and Wieschaus, 1978</up>. Cell autonomous in mitotic clones <up>Baker and Ridge, 1980</up>.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 69 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        MARRVEL_MODEL
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        tra
        (Monyak et al., 2021, Yang, 2021, Colombani and Andersen, 2020, Hudry et al., 2019, Kandul et al., 2019, Qiu et al., 2019, Sakai et al., 2019, Sato et al., 2019, Sato et al., 2019, Sethi et al., 2019, Cho et al., 2018, Garner et al., 2018, Park et al., 2018, Sandler et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Wu et al., 2018, Houot et al., 2017, Moschall et al., 2017, Hoopfer, 2016, Regan et al., 2016, Sawanth et al., 2016, Fear et al., 2015, Grotewiel and Bettinger, 2015, Lucchesi and Kuroda, 2015, Yan and Perrimon, 2015, Argue and Neckameyer, 2014, Bussell et al., 2014, Gendron et al., 2014, Lee et al., 2014, Castellanos et al., 2013, Erion and Sehgal, 2013, Evans and Cline, 2013, Ruiz et al., 2013, Shirangi et al., 2013, Weng et al., 2013, Foronda et al., 2012, Frizzell et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Tarone et al., 2012, Venables et al., 2012, Whitworth et al., 2012, Yang et al., 2012, Avery et al., 2011, Chang et al., 2011, Chatterjee et al., 2011, Gempe and Beye, 2011, Graveley et al., 2011, Hartmann et al., 2011, Kimura, 2011, Cachero et al., 2010, Fan et al., 2010, Fernandez et al., 2010, Johnson et al., 2010, Rideout et al., 2010, Rubinstein et al., 2010, Ruiz and Sanchez, 2010, Casper and Van Doren, 2009, Dankert et al., 2009, Lacaille et al., 2009, Mundiyanapurath et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Shen et al., 2009, DeFalco et al., 2008, Kimura et al., 2008, Kpebe and Rabinow, 2008, Ng and Kopp, 2008, Saccone et al., 2008, Siera and Cline, 2008, Smith and Oliver, 2008, Chan and Kravitz, 2007, Chan and Kravitz, 2007, Chertemps et al., 2007, Dierick and Greenspan, 2007, Evans and Cline, 2007, Goldman and Arbeitman, 2007, Jones et al., 2007, Kitadate et al., 2007, Lazareva et al., 2007, Li et al., 2007, Nurminsky, 2007, Penn and Schedl, 2007, Reiter et al., 2007, Rideout et al., 2007, Robida et al., 2007, Siera and Cline, 2007, Billeter et al., 2006, Billeter et al., 2006, Casper and Van Doren, 2006, Chertemps et al., 2006, Le Bras and Van Doren, 2006, Lee et al., 2006, McIntyre et al., 2006, Metzstein and Krasnow, 2006, Park et al., 2006, Yu and Dickson, 2006, Barmina et al., 2005, Gleason, 2005, Haag and Doty, 2005, Kiesler et al., 2005, Rehwinkel et al., 2005, Siwicki et al., 2005, Tarone et al., 2005, Wawersik et al., 2005, Acebes et al., 2004, Rehwinkel et al., 2004, Yamamoto et al., 2004, Banerjee et al., 2003, Lalli et al., 2003, Svensson et al., 2003, Kido and Ito, 2002, Lee et al., 2002, Savarit and Ferveur, 2002, An et al., 2000, Kim et al., 2000, Nilsson et al., 2000, Singh et al., 2000, Amrein et al., 1994)
        transformer
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