Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\tub
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
tube
Annotation Symbol
CG10520
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003882
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
tube (tub) encodes an adaptor protein, which functions downstream of the product of Myd88 in the Toll pathway. Toll pathway is a signaling cascade that plays a key role in various developmental and immune processes, notably embryonic dorsoventral patterning and regulation of antimicrobial peptides. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:4,387,742..4,389,813 [+]
Recombination map

3-47.1

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:4387742..4389813
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (20 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:pll; FB:FBgn0010441
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q05652
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q05652
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:pll; FB:FBgn0010441
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Myd88; FB:FBgn0033402
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Tl; FB:FBgn0262473
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in apoptotic process
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in mitotic cell cycle
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in response to fungus
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925
(assigned by GO_Central )
located_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
DORSAL GROUP -
The Dorsal group genes encode components of the Toll pathway and were initially identified by maternal effect mutations resulting in the dorsalization of the embryo. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Plays an essential role in the Tl receptor signaling pathway that establishes embryonic dorsoventral polarity; the signal directs import of dl into ventral and ventrolateral nuclei, thereby establishing dorsoventral polarity. Tub recruits pll to the plasma membrane and protein-protein interaction activates pll. Also has a role in pupal pattern formation.
(UniProt, P22812)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
tub: tube
Maternal effect embryonic lethal. Embryos can be rescued with wild-type cytoplasm and RNA; however, none hatched (Anderson and Nusslein-Volhard, 1984). Dorsalization observed in the pattern of ftz stripes in tub embryos (Carroll et al., 1987).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

cofactor with pelle to activate Dorsal - involved in dorsal/ventral polarity during early development - adaptor protein that functions downstream of Myd88 in the Toll pathway - regulates antimicrobial peptides

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\tub for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Evidence supports alternative transcription start site within flanking TE (RAMPAGE TSS data, FBrf0220331; cDNA). May be specific to sequenced strain; not included in gene model.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0302338
2006
462
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.1 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0291542
49.8
462
4.16
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

462 (aa); 50 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts (via Death domain) with pll (via Death domain).

(UniProt, P22812)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylated by pll.

(UniProt, P22812)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\tub using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
pole plasm

Comment: maternally deposited

organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data

tub transcripts are detected throughout development with peaks observed in 0-3hr embryos, third instar larvae and adult females. They are uniformly distributed in mature oocytes and precellular embryos.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\tub in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 17 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 12 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of tub
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of tub
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 9 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (12)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AWL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DE9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0G8G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts (via Death domain) with pll (via Death domain).
    (UniProt, P22812 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-47.1

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:4,387,742..4,389,813 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    82A5-82A5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)0273302733 and P{EP}EP974
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    82A-82A
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (9)
    Genomic Clones (12)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (34)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    The tub and pll proteins have different biochemical activities but are activated by the same mechanism in the dl nuclear localisation cascade. Membrane association and oligomerization are required for full activation of tub and pll.

    tub is required for muscle development in the embryo.

    Targeting of either tub or pll product to the plasma membrane by myristylation is sufficient to activate the signal transduction pathway that leads to translocation of the dl product. Activated Tl induces a localized recruitment of tub and pll proteins to the plasma membrane.

    Yeast two hybrid assay demonstrates both tub and pll interact with dl. Interactions have also been confirmed in an in vitro binding assay. C terminus of tub is essential for the full activity of the protein.

    tub, pll, cact and dl form a complex essential for signal transduction.

    The embryonic regulatory pathway, comprising the gene products between spz and cact (Tl, tub and pll) but not the genes acting upstream or downstream (ea and dl), is involved in the induction of the Drs gene in adults. Mutations that affect the synthesis of antimicrobial peptides dramatically lower the resistance of flies to infection.

    Interaction of the pll kinase with the membrane associated tub protein is required for transduction of the dorsoventral signal in embryos. The interaction of the pll protein with the tub protein is mediated by the putative regulatory domain of pll and not by the protein kinase catalytic domain. pll can function in signal transduction in the absence of tub and cannot act upstream of tub in the signaling pathway.

    The tub protein can function in a novel way to enhance dl activity. In the absence of dl or when dl is cytoplasmic, tub is only found in the cytoplasm of transfected cells. When dl is localised to the nucleus, so is tub. tub can then function to enhance reporter gene expression, by cooperation with dl or as a Scer\GAL4-tub fusion protein. tub is capable of acting as both a chaperon or escort for dl as it moves to the nucleus and then as a transcriptional coactivator. The intracytoplasmic domain of Tl is sufficient for activating the signalling pathway that leads to dl-tub nuclear translocation in Schneider cells.

    Deletions in the 3' UTR yield weakly ventralised embryos upon injection into tub and 107.1 mutant backgrounds. The deletions result in greater tub activity than in wild type embryos so the deletions may have hit regions of the transcript required to maintain low levels of tub.

    Signal-dependent dl phosphorylation is modulated by three intracellular proteins, pll, tub and cact.

    tub acts upstream of pll in the dorsoventral signal transduction pathway. The two-hybrid yeast interaction system demonstrates direct interaction of pll (bait) with tub (prey) to activate a reporter gene, Ecol\lacZ.

    tub acts downstream of Tl indicating that the gene product is part of the machinery that transmits the signal from the Tl receptor to promote nuclear localisation of the dl gene product. tub is not essential for viability but lack of tub gene product decreases the chances of survival to adult stages. Lowering the dosage of pll strongly enhanced the phenotypes of all weak tub alleles. Double mutants of tub and pll show higher zygotic lethality than either single mutant.

    The tub protein plays an essential role in the signal transduction pathway that establishes dorso-ventral polarity. Analysis of mutant alleles, interspecific sequence comparisons and RNA injection experiments with deleted tub genes indicate that the two halves of the tub proteins have functionally distinct roles in signal transduction.

    Double mutant combinations of tub with ea alleles demonstrate that spatial regulation of ea activity by localized zymogen activation is a key initial event in defining the polarity of the dorsal-ventral embryonic pattern.

    Genetic and molecular characterization of tub suggests that tub represents a class of protein active in signal transduction at two stages of development.

    Mutations in maternal dorsal class gene tub do not interact with RpII140wimp.

    Analysis of mosaic females indicates that Ser, ea, snk and tub are expressed in the germline during oogenesis.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 47 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
    Reported As
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBan0010520
    • FBgn0015226
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (246)