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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\hid
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
head involution defective
Annotation Symbol
CG5123
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0003997
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Activator of apoptosis, with grim and rpr, that acts on the effector Dredd (PubMed:9740659, PubMed:22615583). Seems to act genetically upstream of baculoviral anti-apoptotic p35 (PubMed:7622034). Blocks Diap2 from binding and inactivating the effector caspase Drice (PubMed:18166655). Might regulate apoptosis downstream of Clbn/NEMF (PubMed:22964637). (UniProt, Q24106)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

W, Wrinkled, l(3)05014

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:18,167,745..18,185,641 [-]
Recombination map
3-45
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:18167745..18185641
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (34 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Diap2; FB:FBgn0015247
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Diap1; FB:FBgn0260635
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Diap1; FB:FBgn0260635
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Diap1; FB:FBgn0260635
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (27 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (26 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in apoptotic process
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Diap1; FB:FBgn0260635
inferred from direct assay
involved_in cell death
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in head involution
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:rpr; FB:FBgn0011706
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Drice; FB:FBgn0019972
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Dronc; FB:FBgn0026404
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Decay; FB:FBgn0028381
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Strica; FB:FBgn0033051
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Dark; FB:FBgn0263864
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:rpr; FB:FBgn0011706
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in mitochondrion
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    RHG PROTEINS -
    RHG proteins possess a 12 amino acid RHG motif. This motif, also known as the IAP-binding motif (IBM), interacts with the BIR domain of Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and relieving IAP-mediated caspase inhibition. Over-expression of individual RHG proteins is sufficient to induce apoptosis. (Adapted from FBrf0225510).
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Activator of apoptosis, with grim and rpr, that acts on the effector Dredd (PubMed:9740659, PubMed:22615583). Seems to act genetically upstream of baculoviral anti-apoptotic p35 (PubMed:7622034). Blocks Diap2 from binding and inactivating the effector caspase Drice (PubMed:18166655). Might regulate apoptosis downstream of Clbn/NEMF (PubMed:22964637).
    (UniProt, Q24106)
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    W: Wrinkled
    Homozygote viable. Wings remain small and unexpanded. Black spots on head beside proboscis or ocelli. Heterozygous female like homozygote but less extreme. Male much less extreme; wings often expanded but wrinkled, blistered, and surface finely pebbled and grayish; no overlap with wild type. Suppressed by D in male and nearly so in female. From prepupal stage through adult, wing bases abnormally narrow, possibly preventing flow of body fluid in sufficient quantity to expand wings [Waddington, 1940, J. Genet. 41: 75-139 (fig.)]. RK1 as dominant.
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    induces programmed cell death - arbitrates collective cell death in the wing - Nanos-mediated repression of protects larval sensory neurons after a global switch in sensitivity to apoptotic signals

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\hid for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.46

    Gene model reviewed during 5.55

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0075133
    4018
    410
    FBtr0332862
    2190
    410
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)

    4.2 (northern blot)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0074899
    43.9
    410
    8.35
    FBpp0305084
    43.9
    410
    8.35
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

    410 aa isoforms: hid-PA, hid-PB
    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)

    410 (aa); 43 (kD predicted)

    Comments
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

    Interacts with Diap2 (via BIR2 and BIR3 domains).

    (UniProt, Q24106)
    Crossreferences
    PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\hid using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    antennal primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    central brain primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    visual primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    dorsal head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    lateral head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    ventral head epidermis primordium

    Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

    gnathal primordium

    Comment: reported as gnathal lobes anlage

    northern blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    W transcript is expressed in salivary glands after the prepupual ecdysone pulse.

    W transcripts are expressed in a highly dynamic and complex pattern throughout embryogenesis. W is expressed in many regions where cell death occurs (as shown by acridine orange staining). For example, at stage 11, both acridine orange staining and W expression are observed in head and gnathal segments and in a segmentally repeated pattern throughout the germ band. In embryos undergoing head involution, a correspondence is seen between patterns of cell death and W expression. W expression and acridine orange staining are not always conincident. W expression is observed throughout the entire optic lobe primordium but only some of the cells undergo apoptosis. Little or no W expression is observed in the ventral nerve cord in late embryogenesis though extensive cell death occurs there.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    hid reporter and hid protein expression are observed in prepupal legs in the domains where tarsal folds evolve.

    W protein is detected in Malpighian tubules in embryos and first instar larvae, along with pro-apoptotic gene grim.

    hid protein is detected in the male genital disc in segments A8, A9, And A10 in third instar larvae but not in female genital discs. Expression is upregulated at the A/P borders and in the stalks.

    A low level of W protein is observed in eye discs.

    The only cells that express W protein in the stage 17 embryonic nerve cord are the surviving midline glial cells.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    located_in cytoplasm
    inferred from direct assay
    located_in mitochondrion
    inferred from direct assay
    located_in nucleus
    inferred from direct assay
    located_in plasma membrane
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\hid in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
    • Stages(s) 4-6
    • Stages(s) 7-8
    • Stages(s) 9-10
    • Stages(s) 11-12
    • Stages(s) 13-16
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 41 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 47 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of hid
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of hid
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 10 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    follicle cell & nucleus | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190FZL )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150BCO )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Mayetiola destructor
    Hessian fly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0D6R )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with Diap2 (via BIR2 and BIR3 domains).
    (UniProt, Q24106 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-45
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3L:18,167,745..18,185,641 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    75C1-75C1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(3)j11B2j11B2 and P{PZ}W05014
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    75C1-75C2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (142)
    Genomic Clones (49)
    cDNA Clones (33)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       

      polyclonal

      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: hid W

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments

      Changed from 'W' to 'hid' to reflect common usage in the literature.

      'W' ('Wrinkled') has been renamed to 'hid' ('head involution defective') as of FB2014_05 to reflect the overwhelming preference in the published literature.

      Other Comments

      rpr is targeted to mitochondria via interaction with W.

      W-induced apoptosis can occur without JNK activation.

      W is required for larval salivary gland cell death during metamorphosis and both rpr and W function in a redundant manner to direct efficient destruction of the larval salivary gland and larval midgut during metamorphosis.

      The elimination of male-specific somatic gonadal precursors from females is controlled by W and possibly other genes of the H99 region.

      In the absence of W midline glial cells are not reduced by cell death as in wild-type.

      W may kill cells by inhibiting th's ability to antagonise caspase function.

      Domains in addition to the BIR2 domain of the th gene product are required for rpr, grim and W to inactivate th.

      W can induce apoptosis in follicle cells.

      rpr, W and grim promote apoptosis by disrupting interactions between the th and Dcp-1 proteins.

      th is epistatic to the mutant phenotype of Df(3L)H99 (deleted for rpr, W, and grim).

      Activation of the Egfr/Ras85D/rl pathway specifically inhibits the proapoptotic activity of W.

      The modulation of W expression serves to change the sensitivity of cells to the activity of other cell death inducers and allows for precise control of cell death during development.

      Expression of death inducers rpr and W and the repression of death inhibitor Iap2 correlates with the onset of histolysis in the larval salivary gland, suggesting that programmed cell death may be coordinated by both inductive and repressive mechanisms.

      Targetted expression of W or rpr alone in the midline cells is not sufficient to induce ectopic cell death. Coexpression rapidly induces cell death that results in axon scaffold defects characteristic of mutants with abnormal midline cell development. Results suggest that rpr and W are expressed together and cooperate to induce programmed cell death during development of the central nervous system midline.

      Characterisation of grim suggests the encoded apoptotic function is upstream of putative Cys proteases and grim activity parallels that of rpr and W.

      The W gene is not required for cell death induction by ectopic expression of rpr.

      Phenotypic analysis demonstrates W function is required for the normal pattern of programmed cell death (PCD) in the embryo.

      The W mutation is quite different from the hid loss of function mutation but characterisation of EMS-induced W revertants reveals W and hid are allelic.

      During the morphogenetic reorganisation of the embryonic head region W+ function is necessary for the movement of the dorsal fold across the procephalon and clypeolabrum, a process that forms the frontal sac. The absence of the frontal sac affects the formation of the dorsal bridge and disrupts the development of the larval cephalopharyngeal skeleton. W+ function is also required during pupal development for the 360o rotation of the male terminalia and for a late step of wing blade morphogenesis.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer

      Jollos, 1936.

      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 47 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      Hid
      (Piedade and Famulski, 2021, Cho et al., 2020, Fujisawa et al., 2020, Kosakamoto et al., 2020, Sharma et al., 2020, Burguete et al., 2019, Lee et al., 2019, Anthoney et al., 2018, Diwanji and Bergmann, 2018, Stuelten et al., 2018, Yanku et al., 2018, Nainu et al., 2017, Nakajima and Kuranaga, 2017, Dabrowska et al., 2016, Di Gregorio et al., 2016, Eroglu and Derry, 2016, Kawamoto et al., 2016, Pinto-Teixeira et al., 2016, Zheng et al., 2016, Arefin et al., 2015, Arya and White, 2015, Denton and Kumar, 2015, Enomoto et al., 2015, Lashmanova et al., 2015, O'Keefe et al., 2015, Parchure et al., 2015, Van De Bor et al., 2015, Xing et al., 2015, Griciuc et al., 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Takáts et al., 2014, Chang et al., 2013, Ciurciu et al., 2013, Denton et al., 2013, Dick and Megeney, 2013, Herrera et al., 2013, McClure and Heberlein, 2013, Pechkovsky et al., 2013, Yuan and Akey, 2013, Christiansen et al., 2012, Miura, 2012, Pushpavalli et al., 2012, Abdelwahid et al., 2011, Bangi et al., 2011, Gordon and Du, 2011, Karpac et al., 2011, Kuranaga, 2011, Martinou and Youle, 2011, Morata et al., 2011, Sinenko et al., 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Bergmann, 2010, Figeac et al., 2010, Gupta et al., 2010, Amcheslavsky et al., 2009, Liu et al., 2009, Lv et al., 2009, Pérez-Garijo et al., 2009, Chang et al., 2008, Li and Cadigan, 2008, Pastor-Pareja et al., 2008, Siddique et al., 2008, Agnès et al., 2007, Copeland et al., 2007, Di Stefano et al., 2007, Gupta et al., 2007, Huh et al., 2007, Kuranaga and Miura, 2007, Li et al., 2007, Link et al., 2007, Neisch et al., 2007, Ribeiro et al., 2007, Volk and Reuveny, 2007, Volohonsky et al., 2007, Adrain, 2006, Baehrecke, 2006, Hays, 2006, Herz, 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Means et al., 2006, Montell, 2006, Moskalev et al., 2006, Wells et al., 2006, Yan et al., 2006, Gaul et al., 2005, Guan et al., 2005, Juhasz and Sass, 2005, Perez-Garijo et al., 2005, Rosenzweig et al., 2005, Waldhuber et al., 2005, Anonymous, 2004, Dotto and Silke, 2004, Huh et al., 2004, Igaki and Miura, 2004, Shiozaki and Shi, 2004, Yan et al., 2004, Yokokura et al., 2004, Baehrecke, 2003, Baehrecke, 2003, Brachmann and Cagan, 2003, Gozani et al., 2002, Holcik, 2002, Igaki et al., 2002, Li et al., 2002, Luque et al., 2002, Varghese et al., 2002, Adams and Cory, 2001, Wu et al., 2001, Kumar, 2000, Steller, 2000, Abrams, 1999, Conlan and Raff, 1999, Thress et al., 1999, White, 1999)
      hid
      (Akai et al., 2021, DeAngelis et al., 2021, Evans et al., 2021, Ferguson et al., 2021, Maurya et al., 2021, Osman and Pek, 2021, Song et al., 2021, Wang et al., 2021, Brown et al., 2020, Krautz et al., 2020, La Marca and Richardson, 2020, Li and Hidalgo, 2020, Makhnovskii et al., 2020, Maselko et al., 2020, Mehta et al., 2020, Muñoz-Nava et al., 2020, Ojha and Tapadia, 2020, Öztürk-Çolak et al., 2020, Park et al., 2020, P et al., 2020, Pop et al., 2020, Ramond et al., 2020, Saini et al., 2020, Vuong et al., 2020, Waghmare et al., 2020, Wang and Spradling, 2020, Xia et al., 2020, Xu et al., 2020, Yu et al., 2020, Zeng et al., 2020, Zhao et al., 2020, Coelho and Moreno, 2019, Gerlach et al., 2019, Hall et al., 2019, Herrera and Bach, 2019, Hwang et al., 2019, Jacomin et al., 2019, Khan et al., 2019, Lee et al., 2019, Mehta and Singh, 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Moreno et al., 2019, Murcia et al., 2019, Pahl et al., 2019, Park et al., 2019, Pinal et al., 2019, Rimal and Lee, 2019, 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      Name Synonyms
      Head involuted defective
      Head involution defect
      head involuted
      head involution defect
      head involution defective 1
      head-involution defective
      head-involution-defective
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0010852
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (1,151)