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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\y
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
yellow
Annotation Symbol
CG3757
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004034
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
L-dopachrome isomerase (5.3.3.12)
Gene Summary
yellow (y) is the founding gene of the Yellow family. Lack of y function results in an abnormal male courtship behavior and a characteristic yellow color of the adult cuticle and larval mouthparts. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

EG:125H10.2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:356,509..361,245 [+]
Recombination map
1-0
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:356509..361245
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (11 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:e; FB:FBgn0000527
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cell hair
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000000448
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the major royal jelly protein family. (P09957)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
L-dopachrome = 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylate (5.3.3.12)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
yellow (y) is the founding gene of the Yellow family. Lack of y function results in an abnormal male courtship behavior and a characteristic yellow color of the adult cuticle and larval mouthparts. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
YELLOW -
The archetypal gene of this family, yellow (y), was identified by the abnormal yellow phenotype of the adult cuticle and larval mouthparts of D.mel mutants. Yellow-like genes have been identified in insects, bacteria, fungi, and three non-insect eukaryotes. Their roles in appear to be quite divergent, and include influencing pigmentation, behaviour, and sex-specific reproductive maturation and epigenetic reprogramming. (Adapted from FBrf0212607).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Controls the pigmentation pattern of the adult cuticle and larval mouth parts.
(UniProt, P09957)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
y: yellow
The yellow locus controls the melanotic pigment pattern of the cuticle of the adult fly and the pigmented mouth parts and denticle belts of the larval cuticle. y mutants can be separated into the following phenotypic classes, each group involving a color change from gray-black to yellow-brown (Nash, 1973, Genetics 74: s191): (1) Mutants that show a total loss of pigmentation from the cuticle (y-type) and (2) mutants that show a mosaic pigment pattern, some regions of the cuticle being wild type and others yellow in color (y2-type). In the latter type of mutants, at least 40 different adult cuticular structures can express their color independently (Nash and Yarkin, 1974); phenotypes of these mutants indicate that they may play a regulatory role in the expression of yellow (Chia et al., 1986). Some of these type (2) mutants are not temperature-sensitive; others are heat- or cold-sensitive (Nash et al., 1983). For the most part, the yellow gene is autonomous in mosaics, but there is some nonautonomy over limited distances (Hannah, 1953). The function of the gene product in the pigmentation process is still unknown (Biessmann, 1985; Geyer et al., 1986). Hemizygous males are at a mating disadvantage when paired with wild type females (Bastock, 1956, Evolution 10: 421-39), exhibiting a reduced level of locomotion and abnormal courtship (Wilson, Burnet, Eastwood, and Connolly, 1976, Genet. Res. 28: 75-88; Burnet and Wilson, 1980, Genet. Res. 36: 235-47).
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\y for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Mutation in sequenced strain: single base change in start codon; see y[1].Compare with GB:X04427.

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070071
2038
541
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.9 (northern blot)

1.9 (unknown)

1.990 (northern blot, sequence analysis)

2.0 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070070
60.5
541
5.57
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

541 (aa); 57 (kD)

541 (aa); 60.752 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\y using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Expression during pupal development of the y transcript is detected on the second day following the onset of the prepupal stage, and is highest on the third day. The y transcript is detect at low levels in the adult.

The y transcript is fisrt detected in late embryonic stages, with expression dropping to very low levels during the larval stages. During pupal stages y-RA is again expressed at high levels.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

y protein is firstdetected 13hr postfertilization in epidermal cells and in the cuticlestructures secreted by them that later become pigmented. It is observed inthe anterior part of all 8 abdominal segments, in regions corresponding todenticle belts, in microchaetae, in the anterior region of the pharynx,and in the mouthparts in older embryos. It is also detected in thecuticular structure associated with Keilin\'s organs.

In situ hybridizations show spotty y expression in the head and ventral region in 11-12 hr embryos. Head expression probably correlates with later pigmentation of the mouth parts. In 15-16 hr embryos, y expression occurs in a segmentally repeated striped pattern on the ventral and lateral side of the embryo where the setal belts will become pigmented. In pupae, y expression begins 48 hours after pupariation which coincides with the beginning of cuticle secretion, and is found exclusively in the epidermal cells. Expression is greater in areas that will be more heavily pigmented.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cell hair
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\y in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 798 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 152 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of y
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of y
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 345 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 345 )
Gene disrupted in
Gene duplicated in
Gene not disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult abdomen & macrochaeta
adult cuticle & adult abdomen | female
adult thorax & macrochaeta
cuticle & abdomen
leg & external sensory organ
leg & macrochaeta
macrochaeta & adult abdomen
macrochaeta & wing
wing & macrochaeta
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091905DX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504G1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07Y3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07TY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G140M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (15)
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-0
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:356,509..361,245 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    1A5-1A5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG17896EP1320&P{EP}EP1398 and P{EP}svrEP356&P{EP}argEP452
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    1B-1B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    1B1-1B1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    1A8-1B1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    1B1-1B2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (53,290)
    Genomic Clones (10)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (1)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
            RNAi and Array Information
            Linkouts
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            Antibody Information
            Laboratory Generated Antibodies
            Commercially Available Antibodies
             
            Other Information
            Relationship to Other Genes
            Source for database identify of

            Source for identity of: y CG3757

            Source for database merge of
            Additional comments
            Other Comments

            Activation of genes in the 1A locus is temporally in an order following chromosomal position, such that ac, then yar and then y is transcribed.

            Adult male pigmentation and mating behaviour are not correlated in y mutants.

            y contains a region from -300bp to 0bp relative to the transcription start site that is required for normal male mating success.

            The y gene is directly activated by the Abd-B protein.

            y is genetically downstream of fru in the 3rd instar larval brain. y is necessary for normal male courtship and plays a role in the development of adult male wing extension during courtship.

            It is proposed that y acts as a growth factor- or hormone-like molecule in the development of pigmentation and sexual behaviour in D.melanogaster.

            y and e expression together appear to determine the pattern and intensity of melanisation.

            Expression of the y and w genes is sensitive to the level of e(y)1 expression.

            In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

            Divergence between the Dsub\y locus and the D.melanogaster y locus has been analysed.

            Mutations of Mow can suppress position effect variegation of y (In(1)y3P).

            Mutations show weak interactions with high and low selection lines, abdominal and sternopleural bristle numbers are affected. Results suggest y is in the same genetic pathway as bristle number quantitative trait loci (QTL).

            In(1)T2. ymos wY1 snmY1 strain suppresses y gene mutability and activates sn gene mutability.

            The repressive effect of su(Hw) on y2 expression is limited to the chromosome in which the su(Hw) binding sites in gypsy are present. The negative effect of the su(Hw) protein can be transmitted to the gene present on the other homologous paired chromosome in the presence of mod(mdg4) mutations. They allow the su(Hw) protein to act in trans and inhibit the action of the y enhancers located in the homologous chromosome on the promoter of their gene.

            Enhancement of the y phenotype of gypsy-induced alleles by mutations in mod(mdg4) requires an intact su(Hw)-binding region and the su(Hw) protein itself.

            A local increase in frequency of y mutants occurred in 1982 and lasted for a decade. Genetic analysis reveals that the presence of unstable alleles in populations is not a sufficient condition for mutation outbursts.

            At the DNA sequence level D.melanogaster populations from Zimbabwe are more than twice as variable as populations from U.S.A. Most variants are not shared between the two geographic regions and areas of low recombination rates have mutations that are nearly fixed.

            Position effect variegation and effect of modifiers of variegation on expression of y in In(1)y3P chromosome studied.

            Mutations of y strongly enhance the effect of z mutations on w expression.

            Superunstable mutations generated in crosses of π2 strain to a wa strain or its derivatives. Each superunstable mutation gives rise to a large family of new super-unstable mutations with a wide range of phenotypic expression. Mutations with the same phenotype often differ in the specificity of their potential for further mutation. Each superunstable mutation is associated with a specific, "paired", reversible mutation. Active transposase encoded by P elements is necessary to maintain superinstability. X transposable element is also implicated in the mutability system.

            The yellow-superunstable system consists of several mutually interconverting alleles with a characteristic phenotype, mode and rate of mutational change.

            A large number of alleles have been isolated from a super-unstable system, and grouped according to which of 12 areas of cuticle they affect. The effects of su(Hw) and mod(mdg4) on these alleles has been assessed: results suggests that the same regulatory protein may influence gene expression in opposite directions.

            The su(Hw) binding region from gypsy can elicit the same mutant phenotype as the complete gypsy element. Phenotypes suggest that presence of su(Hw) protein inhibits action of those tissue-specific enhancers located more distally from su(Hw)-binding region with respect to the promoter.

            Polyclonal anti-y antibody raised. y-beta-gal fusion, pCa4hsny(VSB)beta-gal (Martin, MGG 218:118 ), exactly mimics y expression.

            In vitro translation studies demonstrate that nascent y polypeptide is a preprotein that cotranslates into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and becomes glycosylated. N terminal peptide is cleaved between alanines at positions 21 and 22, to release the final product into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Anti-yellow antibody first detects protein at 13h post-fertilization in epidermal cells and later in cuticle structures that are secreted by them. y protein also detected in Keilin's organs. Results suggest that y gene product is an apically secreted protein which becomes an immobilised structural component of the pigmented cuticle.

            Super-unstable mutations at the yellow locus have been examined molecularly for DNA sequence features that may be responsible for super instability: novel insertion was identified, whose length is polymorphic due to various internal deletions.

            A 2.2 kb region including the ac, sc and y genes in D.simulans has been sequenced and interspecific and intraspecific divergence calculated with D.melanogaster. The level of heterozygosity in the y-ac-sc region exceeds that in the Adh 5' flanking region: the silent divergence is not reduced compared to other regions so the reduction in levels of variation can only be explained by a hitchhiking effect of linked selected substitutions.

            A P element transformation vector developed, named "Y.E.S.", that uses y as the selectable marker and buffers the y coding region from neighbouring enhancers or silencers with su(Hw) binding regions.

            Deletion analysis of gypsy (the insertion into y causing y2) demonstrates that the region to which su(Hw) protein binds is required for the generation of the mutant phenotype by gypsy.

            Immunohistochemical methods were used to study the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the y gene product in embryonic and pupal development to elucidate y polypeptide function.

            On the Dp(1;f)1187 chromosome y resides adjacent to centromeric heterochromatin and displays variegated expression. Reduced copy number probably contributes to gene dysfunction.

            Mutations at the y locus during IR hybrid dysgenesis involve integrating not resident I-elements.

            The DNA sequences required for the correct spatial and temporal expression of y in the late embryo/larvae has been studied using y rescue constructs and y-Ecol\lacZ fusion constructs.

            Deletion analysis of the y cis-linked sequences has identified elements required to regulate temporal and spatial gene expression.

            Mutant alleles are useful as markers in clonal analysis.

            The yellow locus controls the melanotic pigment pattern of the cuticle of the adult fly and the pigmented mouth parts and denticle belts of the larval cuticle. y mutants can be separated into the following phenotypic classes, each group involving a color change from gray-black to yellow-brown (Nash, 1973): (1) Mutants that show a total loss of pigmentation from the cuticle (y-type) and (2) mutants that show a mosaic pigment pattern, some regions of the cuticle being wild type and others yellow in color (y2-type). In the latter type of mutants, at least 40 different adult cuticular structures can express their color independently (Nash and Yarkin, 1974); phenotypes of these mutants indicate that they may play a regulatory role in the expression of yellow (Chia, Howes, Martin, Meng, Moses and Tsubota, 1986). Some of these type (2) mutants are not temperature-sensitive; others are heat- or cold-sensitive (Nash, Kamerow and Merril, 1983). For the most part, the yellow gene is autonomous in mosaics, but there is some nonautonomy over limited distances (Hannah, 1953). The function of the gene product in the pigmentation process is still unknown (Biessmann, 1985; Geyer, Spana and Corces, 1986). Hemizygous males are at a mating disadvantage when paired with wild type females (Bastock, 1956), exhibiting a reduced level of locomotion and abnormal courtship (Wilson, Burnet, Eastwood and Connolly, 1976; Burnet and Wilson, 1980).

            Origin and Etymology
            Discoverer
            Etymology
            Identification
            External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 134 )
            Sequence Crossreferences
            NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
            GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
            RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
            UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
            Other crossreferences
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
            EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
            Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
            GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
            iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
            InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
            KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
            MARRVEL_MODEL
            modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
            Linkouts
            BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
            DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
            DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
            FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
            FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
            FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
            InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
            MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
            Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
            Reported As
            Symbol Synonym
            y
            (Galouzis and Prud'homme, 2021, Buchman et al., 2020, Maksimenko et al., 2020, Port et al., 2020, Vásquez-Procopio et al., 2020, De et al., 2019, Erokhin et al., 2019, Putnam et al., 2019, Chadov et al., 2018, Germani et al., 2018, Hinaux et al., 2018, Kostyuchenko et al., 2018, Marshall et al., 2017, Melnikova et al., 2017, Sharma et al., 2017, Gantz and Bier, 2016, Kalay et al., 2016, Monteiro and Gupta, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Trautman and Carroll, 2016.1.13, Bothma et al., 2015, Lin et al., 2015, Maksimenko et al., 2015, Matthews et al., 2015, Melnikova et al., 2015, Port et al., 2015, Sidorov et al., 2015, Do et al., 2014, Melnikova et al., 2014, Ren et al., 2014, Arnoult et al., 2013, Beumer et al., 2013, Cook, 2013.10.16, Katsuyama et al., 2013, Matzat et al., 2013, Yu et al., 2013, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Liu et al., 2012, Perry et al., 2012, Schwartz et al., 2012, Sun et al., 2012, Wightman et al., 2012, Erokhin et al., 2011, Kyrchanova et al., 2011, Ramos et al., 2011, Sekine et al., 2011, Casali, 2010, de Navascués and Modolell, 2010, Erokhin et al., 2010, Erokhin et al., 2010, Kyrchanova and Georgiev, 2010, Oliver et al., 2010, Rhiner et al., 2010, Silicheva et al., 2010, Akbari et al., 2009, Anaka et al., 2009, Gracheva et al., 2009, Li and Deng, 2009, Ou et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Salzler et al., 2009, Svendsen et al., 2009, Beumer et al., 2008, Chetverina et al., 2008, Doheny et al., 2008, Fujii et al., 2008, Golovnin et al., 2008, Golovnin et al., 2008, Hartl et al., 2008, Hartl et al., 2008, Jeong et al., 2008, Krivega et al., 2008, Kuhn-Parnell et al., 2008, Labrador et al., 2008, Mastroianni et al., 2008, Melnikova et al., 2008, Melnikova et al., 2008, Meyer et al., 2008, Proskuryakov and Melnikova, 2008, Soshnev et al., 2008, Specchia et al., 2008, Buszczak et al., 2007, Di Stefano et al., 2007, Gibert et al., 2007, Goldman and Arbeitman, 2007, Quinones-Coello et al., 2007, Rodin et al., 2007, Roy et al., 2007, Soltani-Bejnood et al., 2007, Takeuchi et al., 2007, Zakharenko et al., 2007, Zecca and Struhl, 2007, Bateman et al., 2006, Berdnik et al., 2006, Beumer et al., 2006, Capelson and Corces, 2006, Chanut-Delalande et al., 2006, de Navas et al., 2006, Gilbert et al., 2006, Ko et al., 2006, Kovalenko et al., 2006, Kupsco et al., 2006, Lee and Wu, 2006, Lei and Corces, 2006, Pomerantseva et al., 2006, Ramos et al., 2006, Vermeulen et al., 2006, Akimoto et al., 2005, Capelson and Corces, 2005, Gruzdeva et al., 2005, Kirilly et al., 2005, Krasnov et al., 2005, Kravchenko et al., 2005, Nikolenko et al., 2005, Oberstein et al., 2005, Egli et al., 2004, Kuhn et al., 2004, Melnikova et al., 2004, Melnikova et al., 2004, Pai et al., 2004, Pastor-Pareja et al., 2004, Renault et al., 2004, Suster et al., 2004, Xu et al., 2004, Hall, 2003, Karakozova et al., 2003, Konev et al., 2003, Golovnin et al., 2002, Hall, 2002, Huet et al., 2002, Savitsky et al., 2002, Wittkopp et al., 2002, Gause and Georgiev, 2000, Yurchenko and Zakharov, 1995, Kornezos and Chia, 1992, Wright, 1987)
            Name Synonyms
            yellow
            (Melnikova et al., 2020, Germani et al., 2018, Schaeffer, 2018, Kravchuk et al., 2017, Marshall et al., 2017, Rebeiz and Williams, 2017, Gantz and Bier, 2016, Massey and Wittkopp, 2016, Reid and O'Brochta, 2016, Camino et al., 2015, Lin et al., 2015, Rebeiz et al., 2015, Sidorov et al., 2015, Bothma et al., 2014, Do et al., 2014, Foo et al., 2014, Griffin et al., 2014, Maksimenko et al., 2014, Melnikova et al., 2014, Tikhonov et al., 2014, Xue et al., 2014, Yu et al., 2014, Arnoult et al., 2013, Erokhin et al., 2013, Gratz et al., 2013, Katsuyama et al., 2013, Matzat et al., 2013, Tikhonov et al., 2013, Yu et al., 2013, Liu et al., 2012, Maclellan et al., 2012, Wightman et al., 2012, Birchler et al., 2011, Erokhin et al., 2011, Ferguson et al., 2011, Kyrchanova et al., 2011, Perry et al., 2011, Riedel et al., 2011, Shpiz et al., 2011, Soshnev et al., 2011, Vorobyeva et al., 2011, Cheli et al., 2010, Erokhin et al., 2010, Iampietro et al., 2010, Moshkovich and Lei, 2010, Rhiner et al., 2010, Silicheva et al., 2010, Anaka et al., 2009, Gracheva et al., 2009, Kostyuchenko et al., 2009, Li and Deng, 2009, Lu et al., 2009, Ou et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Salzler et al., 2009, Svendsen et al., 2009, Beumer et al., 2008, Bickel et al., 2008, Chetverina et al., 2008, Golovnin et al., 2008, Golovnin et al., 2008, Jeong et al., 2008, Kostyuchenko et al., 2008, Krivega et al., 2008, Kuhn-Parnell et al., 2008, Labrador et al., 2008, Maksimenko et al., 2008, Marion et al., 2008, Mastroianni et al., 2008, Melnikova et al., 2008, Melnikova et al., 2008, Proskuryakov and Melnikova, 2008, Shpiz et al., 2008, Soshnev et al., 2008, Specchia et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Di Stefano et al., 2007, Georgiev and Chetverina, 2007, Gibert et al., 2007, Goldman and Arbeitman, 2007, Golovnin et al., 2007, Maksimenko and Georgiev, 2007, Maksimenko and Georgiev, 2007, Rodin et al., 2007, Shirai et al., 2007, Song et al., 2007, Takeuchi et al., 2007, Zakharenko et al., 2007, Chanut-Delalande et al., 2006, Comet et al., 2006, Edwards et al., 2006, Jeong et al., 2006, Kahn et al., 2006, Kupsco et al., 2006, Lee and Wu, 2006, Pal Bhadra et al., 2006, Salazar-Ciudad, 2006, Shaffer et al., 2006, Vermeulen et al., 2006, Akimoto et al., 2005, Gruzdeva et al., 2005, Kravchenko et al., 2005, Nikolenko et al., 2005, Rodin and Georgiev, 2005, Rodin and Georgiev, 2005, Egli et al., 2004, Kostyuchenko et al., 2004, Kullyev et al., 2004, Mel'nik et al., 2004, Melnikova et al., 2004, Suster et al., 2004, Xu et al., 2004, Dimitri et al., 2003, Hall, 2003, Karakozova et al., 2003, Zobacheva et al., 2003, Zobacheva et al., 2003, Golovnin et al., 2002, Hall, 2002, Savitsky et al., 2002, Wittkopp et al., 2002, Gause and Georgiev, 2000, Morris, 1998.6.24, Morris, 1998.6.24, Geyer, 1997.11.8, Andersen et al., 1995, Kornezos and Chia, 1992, Wright, 1987)
            Secondary FlyBase IDs
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