Mutation in sequenced strain: single base change in start codon; see y.Compare with GB:X04427.
Gene model reviewed during 5.51
There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\y using the Feature Mapper tool.
Expression during pupal development of the y transcript is detected on the second day following the onset of the prepupal stage, and is highest on the third day. The y transcript is detect at low levels in the adult.
y protein is firstdetected 13hr postfertilization in epidermal cells and in the cuticlestructures secreted by them that later become pigmented. It is observed inthe anterior part of all 8 abdominal segments, in regions corresponding todenticle belts, in microchaetae, in the anterior region of the pharynx,and in the mouthparts in older embryos. It is also detected in thecuticular structure associated with Keilin\'s organs.
In situ hybridizations show spotty y expression in the head and ventral region in 11-12 hr embryos. Head expression probably correlates with later pigmentation of the mouth parts. In 15-16 hr embryos, y expression occurs in a segmentally repeated striped pattern on the ventral and lateral side of the embryo where the setal belts will become pigmented. In pupae, y expression begins 48 hours after pupariation which coincides with the beginning of cuticle secretion, and is found exclusively in the epidermal cells. Expression is greater in areas that will be more heavily pigmented.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\y in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: y CG3757
y contains a region from -300bp to 0bp relative to the transcription start site that is required for normal male mating success.
In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.
Mutations show weak interactions with high and low selection lines, abdominal and sternopleural bristle numbers are affected. Results suggest y is in the same genetic pathway as bristle number quantitative trait loci (QTL).
The repressive effect of su(Hw) on y2 expression is limited to the chromosome in which the su(Hw) binding sites in gypsy are present. The negative effect of the su(Hw) protein can be transmitted to the gene present on the other homologous paired chromosome in the presence of mod(mdg4) mutations. They allow the su(Hw) protein to act in trans and inhibit the action of the y enhancers located in the homologous chromosome on the promoter of their gene.
A local increase in frequency of y mutants occurred in 1982 and lasted for a decade. Genetic analysis reveals that the presence of unstable alleles in populations is not a sufficient condition for mutation outbursts.
At the DNA sequence level D.melanogaster populations from Zimbabwe are more than twice as variable as populations from U.S.A. Most variants are not shared between the two geographic regions and areas of low recombination rates have mutations that are nearly fixed.
Position effect variegation and effect of modifiers of variegation on expression of y in In(1)y3P chromosome studied.
Superunstable mutations generated in crosses of π2 strain to a wa strain or its derivatives. Each superunstable mutation gives rise to a large family of new super-unstable mutations with a wide range of phenotypic expression. Mutations with the same phenotype often differ in the specificity of their potential for further mutation. Each superunstable mutation is associated with a specific, "paired", reversible mutation. Active transposase encoded by P elements is necessary to maintain superinstability. X transposable element is also implicated in the mutability system.
The yellow-superunstable system consists of several mutually interconverting alleles with a characteristic phenotype, mode and rate of mutational change.
A large number of alleles have been isolated from a super-unstable system, and grouped according to which of 12 areas of cuticle they affect. The effects of su(Hw) and mod(mdg4) on these alleles has been assessed: results suggests that the same regulatory protein may influence gene expression in opposite directions.
The su(Hw) binding region from gypsy can elicit the same mutant phenotype as the complete gypsy element. Phenotypes suggest that presence of su(Hw) protein inhibits action of those tissue-specific enhancers located more distally from su(Hw)-binding region with respect to the promoter.
Polyclonal anti-y antibody raised. y-beta-gal fusion, pCa4hsny(VSB)beta-gal (Martin, MGG 218:118 ), exactly mimics y expression.
In vitro translation studies demonstrate that nascent y polypeptide is a preprotein that cotranslates into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and becomes glycosylated. N terminal peptide is cleaved between alanines at positions 21 and 22, to release the final product into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Anti-yellow antibody first detects protein at 13h post-fertilization in epidermal cells and later in cuticle structures that are secreted by them. y protein also detected in Keilin's organs. Results suggest that y gene product is an apically secreted protein which becomes an immobilised structural component of the pigmented cuticle.
Super-unstable mutations at the yellow locus have been examined molecularly for DNA sequence features that may be responsible for super instability: novel insertion was identified, whose length is polymorphic due to various internal deletions.
A 2.2 kb region including the ac, sc and y genes in D.simulans has been sequenced and interspecific and intraspecific divergence calculated with D.melanogaster. The level of heterozygosity in the y-ac-sc region exceeds that in the Adh 5' flanking region: the silent divergence is not reduced compared to other regions so the reduction in levels of variation can only be explained by a hitchhiking effect of linked selected substitutions.
A P element transformation vector developed, named "Y.E.S.", that uses y as the selectable marker and buffers the y coding region from neighbouring enhancers or silencers with su(Hw) binding regions.
Immunohistochemical methods were used to study the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the y gene product in embryonic and pupal development to elucidate y polypeptide function.
On the Dp(1;f)1187 chromosome y resides adjacent to centromeric heterochromatin and displays variegated expression. Reduced copy number probably contributes to gene dysfunction.
Mutations at the y locus during IR hybrid dysgenesis involve integrating not resident I-elements.
Deletion analysis of the y cis-linked sequences has identified elements required to regulate temporal and spatial gene expression.
Mutant alleles are useful as markers in clonal analysis.
The yellow locus controls the melanotic pigment pattern of the cuticle of the adult fly and the pigmented mouth parts and denticle belts of the larval cuticle. y mutants can be separated into the following phenotypic classes, each group involving a color change from gray-black to yellow-brown (Nash, 1973): (1) Mutants that show a total loss of pigmentation from the cuticle (y-type) and (2) mutants that show a mosaic pigment pattern, some regions of the cuticle being wild type and others yellow in color (y2-type). In the latter type of mutants, at least 40 different adult cuticular structures can express their color independently (Nash and Yarkin, 1974); phenotypes of these mutants indicate that they may play a regulatory role in the expression of yellow (Chia, Howes, Martin, Meng, Moses and Tsubota, 1986). Some of these type (2) mutants are not temperature-sensitive; others are heat- or cold-sensitive (Nash, Kamerow and Merril, 1983). For the most part, the yellow gene is autonomous in mosaics, but there is some nonautonomy over limited distances (Hannah, 1953). The function of the gene product in the pigmentation process is still unknown (Biessmann, 1985; Geyer, Spana and Corces, 1986). Hemizygous males are at a mating disadvantage when paired with wild type females (Bastock, 1956), exhibiting a reduced level of locomotion and abnormal courtship (Wilson, Burnet, Eastwood and Connolly, 1976; Burnet and Wilson, 1980).