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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Cdk1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1
Annotation Symbol
CG5363
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004106
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Cyclin-dependent kinase (2.7.11.22)
[RNA-polymerase]-subunit kinase (2.7.11.23)
Gene Summary
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) encodes a catalytic protein kinase subunit that can only become active after association with either CycA, CycB or CycB3 products. The protein kinase activities of these complexes (CycA-Cdk1, CycB-Cdk1, CycB3-Cdk1) control important aspects of progression through the cell cycle. Functionally, the different Cdk1 complexes are partially redundant. They phosphorylate hundreds of target proteins and are most important for progression into and through mitotic and meiotic M phases. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

cdc2, Dmcdc2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:10,384,739..10,386,262 [-]
Recombination map
2-41
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:10384739..10386262
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (20 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9I7I0
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000623091
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000000364
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002514139
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (12 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from genetic interaction with SGD:S000000364
inferred from genetic interaction with SGD:S000000364
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002514139
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002514139
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000623091
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in fusome
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by CACAO )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000623091
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. CDC2/CDKX subfamily. (P23572)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.22)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein (2.7.11.22)
ATP + [DNA-directed RNA polymerase] = ADP + [DNA-directed RNA polymerase] phosphate (2.7.11.23)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) encodes a catalytic protein kinase subunit that can only become active after association with either CycA, CycB or CycB3 products. The protein kinase activities of these complexes (CycA-Cdk1, CycB-Cdk1, CycB3-Cdk1) control important aspects of progression through the cell cycle. Functionally, the different Cdk1 complexes are partially redundant. They phosphorylate hundreds of target proteins and are most important for progression into and through mitotic and meiotic M phases. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES -
Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are serine/threonine kinases whose activity depends on a regulatory cyclin subunit. (Adapted from PMID:25180339).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Plays a key role in the control of the eukaryotic cell cycle (PubMed:2120044, PubMed:15581871). It is required in higher cells for entry into S-phase and mitosis (PubMed:2120044, PubMed:15581871, PubMed:29746464). In embryos, promotes the release of Rif1 from chromatin during mid-blastula transition (PubMed:29746464). p34 is a component of the kinase complex that phosphorylates the repetitive C-terminus of RNA polymerase II (PubMed:2120044).
(UniProt, P23572)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Cdk1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0080051
1082
297
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.1 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0079641
34.4
297
6.87
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

297 (aa); 34.4 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Forms a stable but non-covalent complex with a regulatory subunit and with a cyclin. Component of the Frs-CycA-Cdk1 complex composed of Cdk1, CycA and Z600 (PubMed:17431409).

(UniProt, P23572)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Cdk1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

cdc2 transcripts are most abundant in early embryos and adult females. Transcripts are abundant and homogeneously distributed in unfertilized eggs and in the syncytial embryo. They appear to be largely excluded from the newly formed cells at division cycle 14.

cdc2 expression correlates temporally and spatially with cell proliferation in embryos.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in fusome
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by CACAO )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Cdk1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 31 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Cdk1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Cdk1
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 12 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
embryonic neuroblast & spindle
ganglion mother cell GMC4-2a & spindle
histoblast & nucleus | conditional ts (with Cdk1B47)
histoblast & nucleus | conditional ts (with Cdk1E1-24)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
1  
4 of 15
No
No
2  
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (11)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (10)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (5)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
6 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (5)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190C0B )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508UE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W09O5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X09KB )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0CH0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (14)
7 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Forms a stable but non-covalent complex with a regulatory subunit and with a cyclin. Component of the Frs-CycA-Cdk1 complex composed of Cdk1, CycA and Z600 (PubMed:17431409).
    (UniProt, P23572 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-41
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:10,384,739..10,386,262 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    31D11-31D11
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}RnrLk06709 and P{lacW}KdelRk00311
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    31E-31E
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (27)
    Genomic Clones (18)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (81)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: cdc2 CG5363

    Source for identity of: Cdk1 cdc2

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments

    'cdc2' renamed to 'Cdk1' owing to: i) preferred usage in the literature; ii) better indication of function/orthology; and iii) preference of authors Lehner and O'Farrell who originally characterized and named the gene in FBrf0051651.

    Other Comments

    Treatment of S2-derived S2-NP cells with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against cdc2 results in a decrease in Stat92E tyrosine phosphorylation.

    Myt1 inhibitory phosphorylation of cdc2 is required for regulating multiple aspects of cell cycle behaviour during spermatogenesis.

    When dsRNA constructs are made and transiently transfected into S2 cells in RNAi experiments, an increase in the proportion of G2/M phase cells, a decrease in cell size, a decrease in cytokinetic index, a decrease in the ratio of cells in prometaphase and metaphase versus the total number of mitotic cells and chromosome abnormalities are seen.

    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: cell size is increased, microtubules are uniform or disorganised, cell shape is irregular, and cell number is decreased indicative of a failure in cell cycle progression through G1 to S and G2 to M stages.

    By attenuating cdc2 function without blocking mitosis, normally asymmetric neural progenitor divisions become defective, failing to correctly localise asymmetric components during mitosis and/or to resolve distinct sibling fates.

    Neural progenitor asymmetric divisions require cdc2.

    polo protein kinase, in embryos, has a narrow peak of activity during late anaphase-telophase, separable from the peak of cdc2 activity.

    A cdc2-dependent checkpoint acts to maintain diplody. In G2, esg is required to maintain a high level of G2/M cdk (a complex that includes the catalytic subunit encoded by cdc2 and a regulatory subunit G2 cyclin) that actively inhibits the entry into S phase.

    Mutations in fzy result in metaphase arrest, neither CycA, CycB or CycB3 are degraded in this arrest. Inactivation of a temperature sensitive cdc2 in fzy metaphase arrest causes a reversion to interphase morphology. This reversion is not accompanied by completion of mitosis so there is no increase in anaphase cells or change in cell number or size.

    cdc2 is required for both meiotic divisions during spermatogenesis. cdc2 function is activated by twe phosphatase.

    The activity of cdc2 is highly sensitive to Cdc37 levels, suggesting that the two genes may act in a common pathway to regulate cell cycle control.

    During development changing levels of cell cycle regulators alters the rate limiting step and the mechanism governing progress of the cell cycle. Three phases of developmental progression of cell cycle regulation have been defined. The first seven cycles run in the presence of constitutively active cdc2. Later during cycles 8-13 increasing mitotic destruction of cyclins drives oscillations in cdc2 activity, cyclin accumulation becomes the rate limiting step for mitosis. Degradation of maternally supplied stg causes tyrosine dephosphorylation of cdc2 to become rate limiting for mitosis beginning in cycle 14.

    Yeast interaction mating has been used to characterise Cyclin-dependent kinase interactor proteins (the prey) in hunts with either cdc2 or cdc2c as baits.

    Twelve (unnamed) recessive lethal alleles have been isolated during a cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal region 31.

    Preliminary genetic and molecular analysis of mutations of cdc2.

    In contrast to the polo gene product, for which kinase activity peaks cyclically at late anaphase/telophase, CycB-associated cdc2 histone H1 kinase activity is maximal upon entry into mitosis during the rapid syncytial mitoses.

    cdc2 gene product is not essential for DNA replication during embryogenesis.

    cdc2 function is essential for cell proliferation throughout development, though block occurs in G2 and no function in S phase could be identified. While the mitotic proliferation of imaginal cells was blocked in mutants, non-imaginal cells continue to grow and endoreplicate their DNA. cdc2c cannot compensate for lack of cdc2 function indicating the independence of their action.

    Recombination mapping and intensive mapping studies of the Su(var)207 and Su(var)2-1216 chromosomes suggested a closely linked second site lethal. Genetic and molecular analysis of the second site lethal revealed it to be an allele of the cdc2 gene (Lehner, EMBO J. 9: 3573--3581, Jimenez, EMBO J. 9: 3565--3571).

    Cross-species complementation tests reveal that a cdc2 cDNA clone will rescue S.cerevisiae deficient in cyclin gene functions.

    The sequence and expression pattern of cdc2 has been determined.

    Northern blot and in situ hybridization studies demonstrate that cdc2 and cdc2c are co-expressed during embryogenesis. cdc2 expression is correlated with cell proliferation.

    Complements yeast temperature-sensitive cdc28 alleles.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 59 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
    Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (30)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    Cdk1
    (Brantley and Di Talia, 2021, Falahati et al., 2021, Ferguson et al., 2021, Khan et al., 2021, Lebo et al., 2021, Sureka and Mishra, 2021, Cho et al., 2020, Garrido et al., 2020, Hinnant et al., 2020, Khaminets et al., 2020, Kizhedathu et al., 2020, López-Gay et al., 2020, Williams et al., 2020, Hall et al., 2019, Yildirim et al., 2019, Gene Disruption Project members, 2018-, Lefebvre and Lécuyer, 2018, Levis, 2018.8.30, Ramani et al., 2018, Sui et al., 2018, Ibar and Glavic, 2017, Kachaner et al., 2017, Liu and Grosshans, 2017, Solis et al., 2017, Song et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Ayeni et al., 2016, Deneke et al., 2016, Ferree et al., 2016, Meghini et al., 2016, Qi and Calvi, 2016, Varadarajan et al., 2016, Yuan et al., 2016, Afonso et al., 2015, Afonso et al., 2015, Bergman et al., 2015, Buckalew et al., 2015, Maiato et al., 2015, Yu et al., 2015, Afonso et al., 2014, Ayeni et al., 2014, Kitazawa et al., 2014, Pushpavalli et al., 2014, Bonke et al., 2013, Noatynska et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Zhou and Luo, 2013, Di Talia and Wieschaus, 2012, Di Talia and Wieschaus, 2012, Farrell et al., 2012, Ito et al., 2012, Kanao et al., 2012, Ghorbani et al., 2011, Li et al., 2010, Oliveira et al., 2010, Swaminathan and Pile, 2010, Glavic et al., 2009, Chia et al., 2008, Von Stetina et al., 2008, Zielke et al., 2008, Calzone et al., 2007, Gawlinski et al., 2007, Gawlinski et al., 2007, Großhans et al., 2007, Huang et al., 2007, Rickmyre et al., 2007, Crest et al., 2006, Khurana et al., 2006, Reber et al., 2006, Crest and Schubiger, 2005, Jin et al., 2005, Onischenko et al., 2005, Onishchenko et al., 2005, Swan and Schupbach, 2005, Swan et al., 2005, Balasubramanian et al., 2004, Crest et al., 2004, Duncan and Su, 2004, Emmerich et al., 2004, Homola and Campbell, 2004, Jin et al., 2004, Levine, 2004, Stumpff et al., 2004, Jacobs et al., 2003, Lee and Orr-Weaver, 2003, Leismann and Lehner, 2003, Reis and Edgar, 2003, Vidwans et al., 2003, Zhong et al., 2003, Deng and Lin, 2001, Edgar and Orr-Weaver, 2001, Homola et al., 2001, Ji et al., 2001, Parry and O'Farrell, 2001, Purdy et al., 2001, Stumpff and Su, 2001, Su and Garner, 2001, Su and Jaklevic, 2001, Su et al., 2001, Tin Su, 2001, Kolonin and Finley, 2000, Lane et al., 2000, Meyer et al., 2000, Su et al., 2000, Foley and Sprenger, 1999, Grosskortenhaus and Sprenger, 1999, Lehner et al., 1999, Jacobs et al., 1998, Kolonin and Finley, 1998, Parry and O'Farrell, 1998, Sclafani, 1998, Su and O'Farrell, 1998, Su et al., 1998)
    l(2)31Eh
    Name Synonyms
    Cdc2 kinase
    Cell division control
    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1
    cyclin dependent kinase
    cyclin-dependent kinase
    cyclin-dependent kinase 1
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (427)