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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\nullo
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
nullo
Annotation Symbol
CG14426
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004143
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:7,049,476..7,050,321 [+]
Recombination map

1-19

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:7049476..7050321
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (7 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Actin-myosin network stability during cellularization. Might be involved in increasing actin-actin interactions or membrane-to-cytoskeleton attachments. nullo together with Sry-a and bnk may provide auxiliary functions, by acting both to stabilize a large and dynamic microfilament structure and regulate its functions.
    (UniProt, P32845)
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    novel myristoylprotein with a cluster of basic amino acids present in the basal junction and required for its formation at the onset of cellularization

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\nullo for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.52

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0299565
    846
    213
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0288840
    24.2
    213
    11.17
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)

    26.5, 25 (kD observed)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\nullo using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    No Assay Recorded
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    nullo and bnk are zygotically transcribed and induced during the slow phase of cellularization. These transcripts rapidly disappear at the transition to the fast phase of cellularization.

    nullo transcripts are first detected at embryonic cycle 11, peak during the mitosis separating cycles 13 and 14, and disappear rapidly at the beginning of cellularization. Expression occurs throughout the cortex of the embryo with less RNA accumulation at the poles than in the rest of the embryo. In cycle 14 broad bands of heavier accumulation are visible. Transcript levels in cycle 14 may be coupled to the nucleocytoplasmic ratio. nullo is not expressed at any other times in development. The onset of expression is not affected in Sry-α mutants and does not require any other zygotically acting genes.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    western blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    nullo protein is blastoderm-specific and is detected between interphase of embryonic cycle 13 and the beginning of gastrulation, with highest levels in cycle 14 and during the slow phase of cellularization. nullo protein localizes between interphase actin caps and within metaphase furrows during cycle 13. At cycle 14, nullo protein co-localizes with the actin network in a punctate hexagonal pattern, and during the slow phase of cellularization continues to be associated with the plasma membrane at, and apical to, the invaginating furrow canal. During the fast phase, less protein is found at the furrow canal, and the majority of nullo protein is dispersed in the cytoplasm. Protein is not detected above background levels at the completion of cellularization.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\nullo in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190FR0 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150B7J )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      X
      Recombination map

      1-19

      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      X:7,049,476..7,050,321 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      6F1-6F1
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}inx7EP1641 and P{EP}CG9650EP1340&P{EP}CG9650EP1617
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      6F-6F
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      6F1-6F2
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (5)
      Genomic Clones (25)
      cDNA Clones (4)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
          RNAi and Array Information
          Linkouts
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          Antibody Information
          Laboratory Generated Antibodies
          Commercially Available Antibodies
           
          Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
          Other Information
          Relationship to Other Genes
          Source for database identify of
          Source for database merge of

          Source for merge of: nullo BcDNA:RE47733

          Additional comments

          Source for merge of nullo BcDNA:RE47733 was a shared cDNA ( date:030728 ).

          Other Comments

          Together with slam, nullo is essential for specification of the cleavage furrow.

          dsRNA has been made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene.

          dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene is tested in an RNAi screen for effects on actin-based lamella formation.

          nullo loss of function mutations cause defects in the formation and maintenance of the basal junction, but do not affect apical junction formation during cellularisation in the embryo.

          In a sample of 79 genes with multiple introns, 33 showed significant heterogeneity in G+C content among introns of the same gene and significant positive correspondence between the intron and the third codon position G+C content within genes. These results are consistent with selection adding against preferred codons at the start of genes.

          Introduction of Dvir\nullo into D.melanogaster nullo mutant embryos rescues the defects in the actin network and allows the development of viable adults.

          Two out of four conserved 7-13bp motifs found in the 5' promoter region of Sry-α, which is also involved in cellularization, are also found in the nullo gene 5' region.

          P element constructs carrying a 4.5kb fragment containing nullo+t4.5 were able to rescue the embryonic lethality associated with nullo mutations.

          The requirement for nullo function during development has been determined. Analysis of nullo mutant clones in adults reveals that nullo activity is not required for cell division in imaginal discs. Germline clone experiments suggest that maternal expression of nullo is not essential for either germline proliferation or the cellularisation of progeny.

          The nullo gene is required for the stability of the actin-myosin contractile network during cellularization.

          Origin and Etymology
          Discoverer
          Etymology
          Identification
          External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 25 )
          Sequence Crossreferences
          NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
          GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
          GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
          RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
          UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
          Other crossreferences
          Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
          Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
          Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
          Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
          GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
          KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
          modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
          Linkouts
          DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
          DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
          Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
          FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
          FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
          FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
          FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
          Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
          Synonyms and Secondary IDs (4)
          Datasets (0)
          Study focus (0)
          Experimental Role
          Project
          Project Type
          Title
          References (109)