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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\sc
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
scute
Annotation Symbol
CG3827
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004170
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
scute (sc) is a proneural gene of the achaete-scute complex. It encodes a transcription factor involved in nervous system development, Notch signalling and sex determination. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

sis-b, sisB, T4, Hw, EG:198A6.1

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:396,060..397,497 [+]
Recombination map
1-0
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:396060..397497
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (29 terms)
Molecular Function (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:l(1)sc; FB:FBgn0002561
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:sisA; FB:FBgn0003411
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in sex determination
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:dpn; FB:FBgn0010109
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Sxl; FB:FBgn0264270
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:l(1)sc; FB:FBgn0002561
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358348
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in sex determination
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000358347
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
scute (sc) is a proneural gene of the achaete-scute complex. It encodes a transcription factor involved in nervous system development, Notch signalling and sex determination. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins that regulate transcription. They are characterized by a 60 amino acid region comprising a basic DNA binding domain followed by a HLH motif formed from two amphipathic α-helices connected by a loop. bHLH transcription factors form homo- and hetero-dimeric complexes, which bind to a E box consensus sequence. (Adapted from PMID:15186484).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
AS-C proteins are involved in the determination of the neuronal precursors in the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. Also involved in sex determination and dosage compensation.
(UniProt, P10084)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Hw: Hairy wing
thumb
Hw: Hairy wing
Edith M. Wallace, unpublished.
Gain of function alleles of ASC, which lead to the development of supernumerary bristles and hairs in all segments of the fly: in the prefrons, postfrons, postgena, and occipital regions of the head; in the preepisternum, episternum, anepisternum, scutum, scutellum, postnotum, wingblade, legs, humerus, and halteres of the thorax; and in the tergites, pleura, and sternites of the abdomen. Phenotype suppressed by three doses of h+ (Botas, Moscoso del Prado, and Garcia-Bellido, 1982, EMBO J. 1: 307-10) and enhanced by h, emc, and pyd (Neel, 1941, Genetics 26: 52-58; Moscoso del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1984, Wilhelm Roux's Arch Dev. Biol. 193: 242-45). Numbers of super numerary bristles reduced in da+ hemizygotes (Dambly-Chaudiere, Ghysen, Jan and Jan, 1988, Roux's Arch Dev. Biol. 97: 419-23).
sc: scute
Specifies the differentiation of numerous macrochaetae on the head and thorax as well as microchaetae on the tergites: anterior, medial, and posterior orbital, posterior vertical, ocellar, and postvertical bristles on the head plus humeral, presutural, anterior and posterior notopleural, anterior supra-alar, sternopleural, anterior and posterior postalar, and anterior and posterior scutellar bristles on the mesothorax; also participates with ac in specifying the anterior vertical, posterior supra-alar, and anterior dorsocentral bristles; specifies the majority of the campaniform sensilla on the wing blade (Leyns, Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1989, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 198: 227-32). Males deficient for sc, i.e., In(1)sc8Lsc4R, are poorly viable and catatonic; homozygous deficient females lethal; males deficient for both ac and sc, i.e., In(1)y3PLsc4R, are lethal (Garcia-Bellido, 1979, Genetics 91: 491-520). sc deficiencies suppress the phenotype of emc; extra doses of ASC enhance the emc phenotype (Moscoso del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1984, Wilhelm Roux's Arch. Dev. Biol. 193: 242-51).
sc260-25
Variegates for y, ac, and probably l(1)1Ac but not for svr; more extreme than scV1. Homozygous lethal. RK2A.
scB57
Embryo displays reduced numbers of CNS and PNS neurons.
Hw59g
Extra vertical, dorsocentral, and scutellar bristles. Suppression of sc with su(Hw)2 does not suppress Hw59g.
HwUa
Weak Hw phenotype in heterozygous females. Phenotype only slightly enhanced by suppressing the pre-existing sc1 allele with su(Hw)2 (Garcia-Alonzo and Garcia-Bellido).
sc1
Causes loss or marked reduction in number of scutellar, coxal, ocellar, first and second orbital, anterior notopleural, postvertical, tergital, and sternal bristles. Bristle sockets missing; bristle cells absent 19 hr after pupation, when normally present [Lees and Waddington, 1942, DIS 16: 70-70a; 1943, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), Ser. B 131: 87-110]. Suppressed by su(Hw) and su(Hw)2. RK1.
*sc3
Most bristles affected, principally ventrals, orbitals, verticals, postverticals, ocellars, humerals, presuturals, notopleurals, supra-alars, postalars, sternopleurals, abdominals, and anterior dorsocentrals; scutellars and postdorsocentrals usually present. Viability of male low; female virtually lethal. RK2.
sc3-1
Partial reversion from sc3. Homozygous females show reduced viability; hemizygous females lethal (Garcia-Bellido, 1979, Genetics 91: 491-520). RK2.
*sc3B: scute-3 of Bridges
Like sc but does not affect anterior notopleurals. Suppressed by su(Hw)2 (Lee, 1973, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 26: 903-09). RK1.
sc4
Extreme scute. Bristles of head, except anterior verticals, absent. Only posterior notopleurals and alars remain on sides of mesothorax; abdominals, ventrals, coxals, and scutellars also missing. Slight variegation for Hw. RK1A.
sc5
Sternital and scutellar bristles reduced in number; others rarely affected. sc5/sc6 is practically wild type. RK1.
sc6
Slight sc; removes coxals, ocellars, first and second orbitals, postverticals, and anterior notopleurals. Scutellars and sternitals not affected. RK1.
sc7
Like sc but anterior notopleurals not affected. sc7 tends to suppress expression of h (Steinberg, 1942, DIS 16: 68). RK1A.
sc8
Slight sc; supra-alars, sternopleurals, or other bristles sometimes affected. Extra bristles may be present. Shows Hw effect and may be recognized in heterozygote, homozygote, or male by presence of one or more hairs on anterior mesopleural region. The Hw effect interacts strongly with h to produce extremely hairy wings (Steinberg, 1942, DIS 16: 68). sc8/0 male nearly lethal; survivors show variegation for y and ac; lethality suppressed by a Y chromosome, partially suppressed by parts of the Y (Hess, 1962, DIS 36: 74-75; 1963, Verhandl. Deut. Zool. Ges., Zool. Anz. Suppl. 26: 87-92). RK2A.
sc9
Like sc but scutellars always absent. Abdomen swollen and wings poorly expanded, like sc2. RK2A.
sc10-1
Like sc3 but more extreme; most extreme viable sc allele. Viability low. RK2A.
*sc12
First and second orbitals reduced or absent; other head bristles, posterior scutellars, and coxals also affected. Also shows achaete effect. Viability of homozygous female low. RK2.
*sc13
Like sc but scutellars invariably absent and ocellars, postverticals, and first and second orbitals less frequent. Anterior and posterior dorsocentrals also absent, as are thoracic hairs, because of ac4. Viability low. RK2.
*sc15
Originally allelic to sc and semilethal in male. Subsequently, allelic to y, ac, and sc, and male lethal. Lethal form exaggerates other ac and sc alleles in heterozygote. RK2A.
sc19
Scutellar bristles absent and sternitals reduced. RK1A.
sc28
Strong scute; not suppressed by su(Hw)2.
sc29
Similar to sc7. Viable and fertile. RK2A.
sc49c
sc52c
sc67b5
Strong scute; not suppressed by su(Hw)2.
sc260-14
Both sexes viable and fertile. RK2A.
sc260-15
Male sterile. Viability reduced. RK2A.
*sc260-16
sc260-16/sc overlaps wild type. Lethal homozygous and hemizygous. RK2.
*sc260-17
Male and homozygous female viable and fertile. RK2A.
*sc260-18
Male sterile. RK2A.
*sc260-20
Male and homozygous female viable and fertile. RK2A.
sc260-22
Both sexes viable and fertile. RK2A.
*sc260-23
Both sexes viable. RK3A.
*sc260-26
Viability reduced in male. Male fertile. RK2A.
*sc260-27
Male viable but sterile. RK2A.
*sc260-29
Male viable but sterile. RK2A.
*scA: scute of Agol
Similar to sc. Viability low. RK2A.
*scB1: scute of Brande
Similar to sc. Viability good. RK2A.
scD1: scute of Dobzhansky
Weak sc. RK2.
scD2
Slight sc. RK2.
scFah: scute of Fahmy
Bristles (principally orbitals, verticals, postverticals, and ocellars) missing. Scutellars and postdorsocentrals left nearly intact. Male viable and fertile; female homozygous lethal. scFah/sc has only occasional absence of postvertical or ocellar bristles. RK2A.
scH: scute of Hackett
Similar to sc but more extreme. RK2A.
scJ4
Scute and achaete effects. RK3A.
*scK: scute of Krivshenko
Similar to sc but semilethal in male and lethal in homozygous female. RK2A.
scL3: scute of Levy
In addition to scute, it has a spoon-like wing caused by a mutation to the right of sc. Viable. Suppressed by su(Hw)2 (Lee, 1973, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 26: 903-09). RK2.
scL6
Moderate scute; suppressed by su(Hw)2 (Lee, 1973, Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 26: 903-09)
scL8
Similar to sc4 but more extreme. Homozygous female sterile. RK2A.
scS1: scute of Sinitskaya
Rather extreme sc allele; slight Hw effect; hairs often removed from abdomen and wings. Homozygous female sterile and low in viability. Male fertile and fairly viable. RK2A.
scS2
Similar to sc7. RK1A.
*scSo: scute of Sytko
Like sc; viability of homozygous female low. RK2.
scV1: scute of Valencia
Extreme scute and achaete. Viability low. RK2A.
scV2
Both achaete and scute variably affected. Some tendency for extra or twin bristles. Abdominal bristles markedly fewer both dorsally and ventrally. Male and homozygous female viable and fertile. RK2A.
sis-b: sisterless b (T. W. Cline)
Original hypomorphic allele recovered as a reversion of sc3 to nearly wild-type ac and sc phenotype in hemizygote and homozygote; originally designated sc3-1 by Sturtevant, renamed sis-b by Cline. Locus also characterized by dominant effects of deficiencies and duplications of the ASC region, and later by mutant alleles sc10-1 and Hw49c that affect ASC functions more than sis-b functions. sis-b reduces viability of homozygous females and hemizygous females are lethal; yet hemizygous males fully viable. Dominant synergistic female-specific lethal interactions with loss-of-function alleles of Sxl, sis-a, and/or maternal da; magnitude of viability effects depends on genetic background and inversely correlates with background effects on male-lethal effects; interactions temperature dependent, generally more extreme at higher temperatures. Female viability effects suppressed by gain-of-function SxlM1 allele, and by duplications of Sxl+ or sis-a+. Duplication of sis-b+ male-lethal in combination with duplication of Sxl+ and/or sis-a+, more so at lower temperatures. Male lethality of duplication combinations suppressed by Sxl-. Phenotype of 2X;3A intersexes strongly dependent on dose of sis-b+. The dose-dependent interactions of this gene identify it as a positive regulator of Sxl+ and part of the numerator of what is referred to as the X/A balance, the primary sex-determination signal. This is a character it shares with sis-a.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

transcription factor - basic helix loop helix - proneural gene that also functions to in sex determination to regulate

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\sc for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Supported by strand-specific RNA-Seq data.

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070073
1438
345
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.4 (northern blot)

1.6, 1.3 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070072
38.2
345
7.13
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

42 (kD observed); 39 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Interacts with da (via bHLH motif). Interacts with Bap60.

(UniProt, P10084)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\sc using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RNase protection, primer extension, SI map
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 0-12 hr AEL

Additional Descriptive Data

The expression of sc transcripts in the wing disc is dynamic. During the last 24hrs of the third larval instar stage, sc transcripts are expressed in the notum anlage in groups of cells that correspond to presumptive sensilla precursor regions except for that of the ventral sensillum of the third vein (L3-v).

sc transcripts are abundant during the first half of embryonic development. They reappear at lower levels in third instar larval and pupal stages. In early embryos, sc transcripts are seen in somatic nuclei but not in the yolk nuclei. They are associated with the nuclei in embryonic cycles 9 and 10, become uniformly distributed in cycle 11, peak in cycle 12, and then rapidly decay. Subsequently, the proneural expression pattern develops.

The pattern of sc expression was compared to that of ac in neurogenic region prior to the segregation of neuroblasts. The patterns are indistinguishable but the level of sc RNA is lower. The patterns of expression of ac and sc at later stages in the dorsal and lateral ectoderm are also the same.

Weak homogeneous expression is observed in the notum anlage of late third instar larvae.

ac trancripts are expressed in clusters of cells in the wing imaginal disc. The locations of the clusters coincides well with the pattern of sensory organ precursors. sc transcripts are also expressed in developing trachea.

sc transcripts are detected mainly in embryonic and pupal RNA.

sc transcripts are observed in the early gastrula in a striped pattern (one stripe per metamere) in the presumptive neurectoderm. Between stages 8 and 9, the pattern changes to two stripes per metamere. Later sc is expressed in the segregating neuroblasts but not in the cells that remain ectodermal. sc expression declines in neuroblasts at stage 9 as they start dividing. This pattern repeats itself as additional cells in the ectodermal layer express sc. Expression continues in cells that become neuroblasts and shuts off in cells that remain ectodermal. sc transcripts are also observed in cephalic neuroblasts and in the posterior midgut.

ac and sc transcripts are detected in a dynamic pattern from blastoderm (sc) or gastrula (ac) through stage 11 embryos. They are present in clusters of cells on the ectoderm and internally near the mesoderm. They are expressed in most neurogenic regions. Their expression patterns are very similar except in stage 9 where sc is barely detectable and ac is expressed in four longitudinal rows of clusters.

The level of unmodified sc transcripts in acHw-1, scHw-Ua, and acHw-BS third instar larvae and pupae is the same as in Oregon R. The level of sc transcripts is reduced in acHw-1+R1 revertants but is not significantly changed in acHw-1+R3 and acHw-1+R5 revertants. sc transcript levels are unchanged in su(Hw)2/su(Hw)7 heterozygotes stocks.

scHw-Ua transcripts have a bimodal developmental profile with peaks of expression in 0-12hr embryos and 0-1 day pupae. The scHw-Ua transcript is more abundant in scHw-Ua embryos and larvae than the sc transcript is in wild type embryos and larvae.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

sc protein is first detected at nuclear cycle6 to 7 and is predominantly cytoplasmic. By nuclear cycle 10, the level of sc antilbody staining increases substantially and protein is detected in the nuclei. Nuclear sc protein increases during cycles 11-13 but some sc protein is still detected in the cytolplasm.

Expression in procephalic neuroblasts stage 9-11: deuterocerebrum - d13; protocerebrum - ad1, ad3-7, ad10, ad16, cd3, cd20, cd21, cv7, pd1, pd11, pd15-17

sc protein is first detected in 0-1 hr embryos. Protein levels increase between 1 and 3 hours and reach a peak in 3-4 hr embryos. In contrast to transcript levels, the high protein levels are maintained until the end of embryogenesis. sc protein is observed in 1st and 2nd instar larvae in contrast to sc transcripts. Protein levels increase in third instar larvae and pupae and in contrast to the transcripts are maintained into adulthood. In early embryos, two populations are observed with respect to FBgn0004170:sc protein levels. Weakly stained embryos are male embryos and darker embryos are female embryos as shown by assays for FBgn0264270:Sxl @ protein. The differences persist until the onset of gastrulation.

sc protein expression in third instar wing discs shows a dynamic pattern. In the notum anlage, sc protein is expressed initially in a number of cells greater than that expected for the number of bristles. Later the number of cells in which protein persists appears to coincide with the number of bristles. sc protein staining fades out by the end of the third instar period. Expression in the different precursors does not occur concomitantly in the wing disc.

sc protein first appears shortly before gastrulation and is present in longitudinal stripes. The highest levels are found at the border between the ventral neurogenic region and the mesoderm anlage. Expression is observed in the proneural clusters of the CNS in early germ band retraction. sc protein expression then becomes restricted to the neuroblasts that delaminate from the ectoderm. The expression in the surrounding cells of the proneural cluster decreases dramatically. Starting in stage 9, sc protein is expressed in proneural clusters of the PNS. It is first found in the proneural cluster for the P cell and then becomes restricted to the P cell. Slightly later, it is expressed in an anteriorly located proneural cluster and then is restricted to the neuronal precursor from this cluster, the A cell. It is expressed in a number of other proneural clusters and neuronal precursors until stage 11/12. At about that time expression is observed in the stomatogastric nervous system and in a subset of cells in the hindgut. Low levels of sc protein are found in sensory organs at stage 14. After stage 14, sc protein is no longer detected.

Expression of ac and sc in ectopic sensilla of h and acHw* mutants was followed with antibody staining. The pattern of expression of ac and sc prefigures the pattern of both ectopic and normal sensilla.

sc protein is localized within the nuclei of proneural clusters. Clusters grow in number and intensity of staining until the sensory organ mother cell (SMC) becomes discernable due to its more intensely stained nucleus. The sc protein disappears shortly before the SMC undergoes its first differential division. The pattern and timing of expression in specific clusters is discussed. sc protein levels are increased in emc11/emcE12 wing discs but the pattern is similar to wild type.

sc protein expression occurs in clusters of cells from which SMCs will arise. It is transiently expressed in the SMCs, often at greater levels than the surrounding cells of the proneural cluster, but not in their progeny. In ac mutants, sc protein expression is missing in the notal cells that give rise to ac-dependent machrochaetes. In emc mutants, ectopic sc protein expression occurs in single cells of the notum that will give rise to ectopic sensory organs. The acHw-49c mutation causes overexpression of sc protein.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\sc in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 133 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 57 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of sc
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of sc
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 145 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 145 )
Gene disrupted in
Gene duplicated in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult thorax & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4ap-md544
adult thorax & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL4ap-md544
anterior notal wing process sensillum campaniformium & glial cell
chaeta | ectopic & mesothoracic tergum, with Scer\GAL4C-765
dorsal row & glial cell
haltere & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1
macrochaeta & leg
macrochaeta & scutellum, with Scer\GAL4455.2
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4ap-md544
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4sca-C253
proboscis & macrochaeta
scutellum & microchaeta, with Scer\GAL4109
sensillum campaniformium of anterior crossvein & glial cell
sensillum campaniformium of dorsal radius & glial cell
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc, with Scer\GAL4109
sensory mother cell & dorsal mesothoracic disc, with Scer\GAL4ptc-559.1
ventral row & glial cell
wing & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4dpp.blk1
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (25)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
8 of 15
Yes
No
2  
7 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
1  
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (24)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (22)
7 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
No
4 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (18)
6 of 12
Yes
No
3 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (22)
8 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (8)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (14)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D4M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150BZ9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0JED )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0JIR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
7 of 10
6 of 10
4 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    suppressible
    suppressible
    suppressible
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    suppressible
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Interacts with da (via bHLH motif). Interacts with Bap60.
    (UniProt, P10084 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-0
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:396,060..397,497 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    1A8-1A8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG17896EP1320&P{EP}EP1398 and P{EP}svrEP356&P{EP}argEP452
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (549)
    Genomic Clones (8)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (4)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: sc CG3827

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      chn and ac/sc appear to form a mutually autostimulatory loop that enhances accumulation of ac/sc protein in the proneural clusters of the notum macrochaetae.

      pnr directly activates the proneural ac and sc genes by binding to the enhancers responsible for their expression in the dorsocentral proneural cluster. wg has only a permissive role on dorsocentral ac-sc expression.

      The sc enhancer promotes sc protein accumulation in the SMCs. Several conserved motifs are essential for its action, some of them binding sites for proneural proteins. The enhancer mediates sc self-stimulation, although only in the presence of additional factors. Cells neighboring the SMC do not acquire the neural fate because N signalling pathway effectors, the HLH proteins of the E(spl) complex, block this regulation loop.

      The wg product induces G2 arrest in two subdomains of the developing wing margin by inducing ac and sc, which down-regulate stg.

      E(spl) proteins normally mediate lateral inhibition by directly repressing proneural gene expression.

      The regulatory relationship between the N-Dl signalling pathway and the proneural genes ac and sc during early microchaetae development is assayed.

      Specification of the precursor cells of the olfactory sense organs of the third antennal segment is not governed by the genes of the ac-sc complex.

      Sequence comparison between sc and Dsub\sc shows a highly conserved bHLH domain, outside this domain amino acid replacements are not randomly distributed. Two additional conserved domains, of 20 and 36 amino acids, are present near the C-terminus.

      The bHLH domains of the gene products encoded by the E(spl)-C and the achaete-scute complex differ in their ability to form homo- and/or heterodimers.

      The interactions established through the bHLH link the products of the E(spl)-C and the achaete-scute complexes in a single interaction network which may function to ensure that a given cell retains the capacity to choose between epidermoblast and neuroblast fates until the cell becomes definitively determined.

      Proneural and neurogenic genes control specification and morphogenesis of stomatogastric nerve cell precursors.

      ac-sc mutants are epistatic over E(spl)-C mutants.

      Loss of function mutations of H and the AS-C are epistatic to Brd.

      All proneural proteins are similarly able to promote the segregation of a neural precursor at the MP2 neuroblast position but show distinct capacities in its specification.

      lawc gene may encode a factor determining the specific expression of the ac-sc genes.

      The presence of ac and sc contribute to the neural precursor identity of MP2. The function of l(1)sc is not interchangable with that of ac or sc within the MP2.

      Immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that sc and da form a heteromeric complex in vivo.

      Mutations in sc fail to properly activate Sxl; sc is required and functions as a dose-dependent positive regulator for Sxl-Pe activity in female embryos.

      Loss of function mutations in the achaete-scute complex lead to a significant reduction in sensory bristles and glial cells. Neurogenesis and gliogenesis share the same genetic pathway, though the mechanism of action of the the achaete-scute complex is different in the two processes.

      Overexpression of da, but not the ectopic expression of the achaete-scute complex genes l(1)sc or sc, leads to the formation of ectopic neural cells in embryonic tissue without neural competence. This effect is strongly enhanced by coexpressing l(1)sc or sc.

      The highly complex pattern of proneural clusters is constructed piecemeal by the action of site-specific enhancer like elements on ac and sc. These elements are distributed along most of the AS-C. The cross-activation between ac and sc does not occur detectably between the endogenous ac and sc genes in most proneural clusters. Coexpression is accomplished by activation of both ac and sc by the same set of position-specific enhancers.

      The somatogastric nervous system is defined by expression of genes of the ac-sc complex in response to the maternal terminal pattern forming system.

      Hvul\ASH functionally complements Df(1)sc10-1 mutants (AS-C mutant background).

      da/sc heterodimers directly activate the Sxl early promoter by binding to both high and low affinity sites. dpn protein represses this activation by specific binding to a unique site within the Sxl early promoter.

      The yeast two hybrid system has been used to demonstrate specific interactions within the sisA, sc, dpn and da group of gene products, and to delimit their interaction domains. The results support and extend the model of the molecular basis of the X/A ratio signal.

      When daughters lack her function a duplication of sc can improve prospects but be made worse by a single mutation of sisA. Males with extra wild type sisA or sc genes have an increased chance of survival when maternal her function is defective.

      ac-sc complex genes are expressed in neuronal precursor cells, so expressed ventrally in insects and vertebrate homologs are expressed dorsally. This situation is thought to have evolved due to an inversion of the dorsoventral axis. The inversion occurred during early chordate evolution, the chordates turned upside down and henceforth were carrying the nerve cord on their dorsal side.

      emc forms heterodimers with the ac, sc, l(1)sc, and da products. emc inhibits DNA-binding of ac, sc and l(1)sc/da heterodimers and da homodimers. emc is a repressor of sc function whose action may take place post-transcriptionally.

      The proneural function of l(1)sc is independent of ac, sc and ase.

      The gene products of ac, sc and l(1)sc together with vnd act synergistically to specify the neuroectodermal E(spl) and HLHm5 expression.

      Brd, sca, m4, HLHm7 and E(spl) are directly activated in proneural clusters of the late third-instar wing imaginal disc by protein complexes that include the ac and sc bHLH proteins.

      vnd controls neuroblast formation, in part, through its regulation of the proneural genes of the ac-sc complex.

      The ectopic expression of an ase DNA binding domain bypasses the requirement for ac and sc in the formation of the imaginal sense organs.

      sc, sisA and run are not required to activate Sxl in the female germline.

      sc is the major numerator gene activating early Sxl gene transcription in females.

      Mutants associated with lesions in the zinc finger domain of pnr show overexpression of ac and sc and the development of extra neural precursors. Mutations in the putative amphipathic helices of pnr act as hyperactive repressor molecules causing a loss of ac and sc expression and a loss of neural precursors.

      The specific combination of the achaete-scute complex genes expressed at one site does not play a role in defining the fate of the progenitor cell that is formed at that site. Individual sense organs depend mostly or exclusively on one of the achaete-scute complex genes because the cis-regulatory sites active at the corresponding location act mostly or exclusively on that particular gene.

      The sis-b function of sc is not required for oogenesis.

      Df(1)sc-B57 (deleted for ac and sc) mutants express normal levels of dpn in their reduced number of neuroblasts.

      Ectopic sensilla appear correlated with ectopic ac and sc expression.

      Phenotypes of many transposable element insertion and rearrangement alleles of sc are enhanced by mutations at the mc locus and suppressed by mutation at the su(sc) locus.

      In the embryo, ac and sc are expressed coincidentally, at reproducible anterior-posterior and dorso-ventral coordinates, in clusters from which neuroblasts will arise. The AP and DV position is regulated through a common regulatory element between ac and sc that is under the control of pair rule, segment polarity and DV patterning genes.

      Emergence of mitotically quiescent cells from which sensory mother cells arise follows precise temporal and spatial pattern and is not affected by sc or ac mutations.

      Dosage studies suggest the balance of sc, dpn and Sxl is involved in sex-specific lethality.

      Direct, positive transcriptional autoregulation by the ac protein and cross-regulation by sc are essential for high level expression of the ac promoter in the proneural cluster. These auto- and cross-regulatory activities are antagonized in a dose-dependent manner by the emc gene product.

      In vitro DNA binding assays using gel retardation to an ac promoter region and hb zygotic promoter region target sequence demonstrates that da protein elicits a weak homodimeric binding and da/ac or da/sc heterodimers bind tightly.

      The sis-b function of sc interacts with the genes Sxl, da and sisA to initiate the female mode of development. sc is required in all regions of the embryo to activate Sxl, run cooperates with sc to activate Sxl in the central region.

      The sis-b+ function, whose dosage is pivotal to the communication of the X:A ratio in sex determination, is conferred by the T4 protein encoded by sc.

      The regulatory regions of the 'sis-b' function, which controls sc expression in sex determination, are both separable from and simpler than those of the 'scα' function, which controls sc expression in neurogenesis.

      Expression of sc stimulates expression of ac, and vice versa, therefore removal of one gene leads to the absence of both proneural gene products and sensory organs in the sites specified by it cis-regulatory sequences.

      Mutations in zygotic gene sc interact with RpII140wimp.

      sc plays a role in generating the X:A signal that controls Sxl activity.

      DNA sequence analysis reveals four E box binding sites, for the binding of hetero-oligomeric complexes composed of da or AS-C proteins, in the first 877 bp of the ac upstream region. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrate that the emc protein can specifically antagonise DNA binding of the da/AS-C complexes in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, h and E(spl) proteins fail to exhibit this inhibitory effect.

      The function of ac, sc and l(1)sc are required for the normal development of the neuroblasts.

      Absence of the achaete-scute complex genes causes neuroectodermal cells to enter the epidermal pathway of development.

      da and sc are both required for the induction of Sxl expression.

      Ectopic expression of sc has male lethal effects on sex determination.

      The capacity for primordia to respond to sc is temporally and spatially regulated. Neither ac nor sc is required to specify the type of sense organ and the sense organ position utilises topological information independent of ac and sc gene products.

      Loss-of-function mutants cause loss of specific clusters of bristles, while gain-of-function mutants cause the appearance of ectopic bristles.

      Analysis of flies deficient for the sc and/or ac genes shows that the complete pattern of campaniform sensilla on the wing results from the superimposition of two independent subpatterns, one of which depends on sc, the other on ac.

      h and emc do not modify the ac/sc patterns of expression in the wing disc.

      Many sensilla precursors of the dorsal radius require sc activity to reach differentiation.

      The expansion of the area of ac and sc expression causes ectopic expression of sensory organs.

      The achaete-scute complex defines the basic topology of the sense organ pattern, rather than the type or precise location of the elements. The achaete-scute complex is an essential component of es and nd neuron development.

      The achaete-scute complex plays a role in determination and early differentiation of embryonic neural cells.

      The interactions between h, emc and the ASC are studied to determine their relationships. The results indicate that h and emc code for repressors that interact with the ac and sc region of the ASC respectively.

      The density of chaetae in emc1/emc2 flies with different doses of sc+ show a saturation effect on the notum, wing and tergite. The spatial distribution of the chaetae results from cell interactions probably by a mechanism of lateral inhibition.

      sc rearrangements with breakpoints in the 'scα' region have their second breakpoints in pericentric heterochromatin, whereas those broken in the 'scβ' region have euchromatic second breakpoints.

      Numerous sc alleles have been described, the great majority of which are associated either with chromosome rearrangements with one breakpoint in region 1B or with inserts of foreign DNA. Nearly all chromosomal lesions with sc effects map proximal to the presumptive sc transcription unit; two inversions with breakpoints just distal to the transcription unit have slight effects; proximal lesions map to either side of l(1)sc and strength of expression is inversely correlated with the molecular distance between the lesion and the scute transcription unit. Proceeding from right to left, lesions remove bristles from the mesonotum in a roughly hierarchical fashion in the following order: scutellars, (postverticals, ocellars, sternopleurals, anterior and medial orbitals, postalars), anterior notopleurals, (posterior orbitals, postverticals, anterior supra-alars) (presuturals, orbitals), with those enclosed in parentheses tending to be removed together (see Ghysen and Dambly-Chaudiere, 1988). Transcription first observed in early gastrula in regions with neurogenic potential, but before any overt evidence of neurogenesis apparent. As development proceeds, a complex temporal and spatial program of expression, mostly in neurogenic precursor cells ensues; expression ceases during the period of germ band shortening (Cabrera, Martinez-Arias and Bate, 1987) (Romani, Campuzano and Modolell, 1987). In third instar larvae, expression in wing discs is confined to restricted subsets of cells known to correspond to regions giving rise to precursors of cuticular sense organs that are under control of sc (Romani, Campuzano, Macagno and Modolell, 1989).

      Specifies the differentiation of numerous macrochaetae on the head and thorax as well as microchaetae on the tergites: anterior, medial and posterior orbital, posterior vertical, ocellar and postvertical bristles on the head plus humeral, presutural, anterior and posterior notopleural, anterior supra-alar, sternopleural, anterior and posterior postalar and anterior and posterior scutellar bristles on the mesothorax; also participates with ac in specifying the anterior vertical, posterior supra-alar and anterior dorsocentral bristles; specifies the majority of the campaniform sensilla on the wing blade (Leyns, Dambly-Chaudiere and Ghysen, 1989). Males deficient for sc, e.g., In(1)sc8Lsc4R, are poorly viable and catatonic; homozygous deficient females lethal; males deficient for both ac and sc, e.g., In(1)y3PLsc4R, are lethal (Garcia-Bellido, 1979). sc deficiencies suppress the phenotype of emc; extra doses of ASC enhance the emc phenotype (del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1984). Alleles of the Hw series are gain of function alleles of the achaete-scute complex, which lead to the development of supernumerary bristles and hairs in all segments of the fly: in the prefrons, postfrons, postgena and occipital regions of the head; in the preepisternum, episternum, anepisternum, scutum, scutellum, postnotum, wingblade, legs, humerus and halteres of the thorax; and in the tergites, pleura and sternites of the abdomen. Phenotype suppressed by three doses of h+ (Botas, del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1982) and enhanced by h, emc and pyd (Neel, 1941; del Prado and Garcia-Bellido, 1984). Numbers of super numerary bristles reduced in da+ hemizygotes (Dambly-Chaudiere, Ghysen, Jan and Jan, 1988).

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 34 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (31)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      l(1)1Ba
      sc
      (Li et al., 2020, Sundararajan et al., 2020, Banerjee et al., 2019, Couturier et al., 2019, Guo et al., 2019, Kwasnieski et al., 2019, Miller et al., 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Zwick et al., 2019, Baker and Brown, 2018, Bischof et al., 2018, Doupé et al., 2018, Yin and Xi, 2018, Hartenstein et al., 2017, Karaiskos et al., 2017, Li et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Erickson, 2016, Kwon et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Baëza et al., 2015, Kiparaki et al., 2015, model organism Encyclopedia of Regulatory Network (modERN) Project, 2015-, Schertel et al., 2015, Ugrankar et al., 2015, Wang et al., 2015, Amcheslavsky et al., 2014, Amcheslavsky et al., 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Ciglar et al., 2014, Fernandes et al., 2014, Hsiao et al., 2014, Huang et al., 2014, Neville et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Cassidy et al., 2013, Chen et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Kux et al., 2013, Zeng et al., 2013, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kunz et al., 2012, Powell et al., 2012, Yang et al., 2012, Zarifi et al., 2012, Barry et al., 2011, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011, Cave et al., 2011, Harrison et al., 2011, Johnson et al., 2011, Kappes et al., 2011, Makhijani et al., 2011, Nien et al., 2011, Pi et al., 2011, Soshnev et al., 2011, Stagg et al., 2011, Aerts et al., 2010, Barad et al., 2010, Cline et al., 2010, de Navascués and Modolell, 2010, Harrison et al., 2010, Popodi et al., 2010-, Rouault et al., 2010, Sousa-Neves and Rosas, 2010, Venken et al., 2010, Aerts et al., 2009, Kunert et al., 2009, Kuzin et al., 2009, Parks and Muskavitch, 2009.2.4, Schaaf et al., 2009, Zhai et al., 2009, Biryukova and Heitzler, 2008, Chang et al., 2008, Golovnin et al., 2008, González et al., 2008, Grau et al., 2008, Kaspar et al., 2008, Liang et al., 2008, Pi et al., 2008, Powell et al., 2008, Soshnev et al., 2008, Usui et al., 2008, Yasugi et al., 2008, Asmar et al., 2007, Ayyar et al., 2007, Biryukova et al., 2007, Golovnin et al., 2007, Grillenzoni et al., 2007, Maung and Jarman, 2007, Rowell et al., 2007, Takeuchi et al., 2007, Zhao et al., 2007, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2006, Joshi et al., 2006, Ko et al., 2006, Marcellini and Simpson, 2006, Simpson et al., 2006, ten Bosch et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Hoskins et al., 2005, Lear et al., 2005, Möller et al., 2005, Reeves and Posakony, 2005, Schlatter and Maier, 2005, Frankfort et al., 2004, Gurunathan et al., 2004, Powell et al., 2004, Sun et al., 2003, Urbach and Technau, 2003, Golovnin et al., 2002, Gause and Georgiev, 2000, Sun et al., 2000, Lee et al., 1999, Mari-Beffa et al., 1991)
      sc/T4
      scute/sisterlessB
      Name Synonyms
      achaete-scute
      scute-T4-transcript
      scute/sisterless-b
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0003324
      • FBgn0003412
      • FBgn0026842
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (896)