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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Akh
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Adipokinetic hormone
Annotation Symbol
CG1171
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004552
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Adipokinetic hormone (Akh) encodes a peptide hormone secreted by the corpora cardiaca. It signals to the G-protein coupled receptor encoded by AkhR to regulate circulating hemolymph carbohydrates and stored lipid and glycogen in the fat body. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Drm-AKH, dAkh

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-10
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:4141467..4142070
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (13 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in lipid homeostasis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the AKH/HRTH/RPCH family. (P61855)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Adipokinetic hormone (Akh) encodes a peptide hormone secreted by the corpora cardiaca. It signals to the G-protein coupled receptor encoded by AkhR to regulate circulating hemolymph carbohydrates and stored lipid and glycogen in the fat body. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
NEUROPEPTIDES -
Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Probably causes a marked increase in hemolymph carbohydrate.
(UniProt, P61855)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Akh for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry P61855)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.43

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0073213
536
79
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
UniProt
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073069
8.8
79
7.13
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments

Small Akh-derived neuropeptides identified by 2D capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS: pQLTFSPDW-amide.

Small Akh-derived neuropeptides identified by LC-MS/MS: pQLTFSPDW-amide.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Akh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that the Fly Cell Atlas project found the gene expressed in that cell type. Darker colors mean that more cells of that cell type express the gene:
 low
high 
Colorless tiles indicate that there is no scRNAseq data for the gene in that cell type.
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data (RNA and/or protein) has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
Colored tiles in the ribbon indicate the average RNA expression level of the gene at the indicated stages:
 low
high 
as determined by RNA-seq (RPKM) using whole organism samples modENCODE, Brown et al., 2014. For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
distribution deduced from reporter (Gal4 UAS)
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
microinjection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

mRNAs are enriched in photoreceptor cells (found by comparing mRNAs isolated from wild-type (w1118) heads with gl3 heads or wild-type bodies).

Akh is expressed exclusively in the corpus cardiacum from late embryonic stages onward.

Akh transcript is expressed exclusively in the corpus cardiacum in third instar larvae and in adults.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
enzyme assay or biochemical detection
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Akh colocalizes with Scer\GAL4ATP7.PB expressing endocrine neurons in the retrocerebral complex.

Akh labels the cells of the corpus cardiacum in larva and co-localises with expression of Scer\GAL4amon.PR.

Akh protein is expressed exclusively in the corpus cardiacum in third instar larvae and in adults.

More than 80% of the Akh peptide is contained in the thorax

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Akh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 6 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Akh
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Akh
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 2 )
Gene disrupted in
Gene partially disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3L
Recombination map
3-10
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
64A7-64A7
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)rG166rG166 and P{PZ}sinu06524
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (8)
Genomic Clones (14)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (7)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: Akh CG1171

    Source for database merge of
    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    ChEST reveals this is a target of Mef2.

    Overexpression of Akh results in hyperlipemia and hypertrehalosemia.

    Akh protein is typical of the adipokinetic hormone family in its general structure and distribution in the fly. It is unique in containing a residue which is charged under physiological conditions.

    Encodes a polypetide similar in sequence to the adipokinetic hormone of other insects.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 30 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (17)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    AKH
    (Chopra et al., 2022, Hughson, 2022, Nässel and Wu, 2022, Ben-Menahem, 2021, Chatterjee and Perrimon, 2021, Chowański et al., 2021, Kim et al., 2021, Léopold, 2021, Meschi and Delanoue, 2021, Moraes and Montagne, 2021, Oliveira et al., 2021, Pauls et al., 2021, Schoberleitner et al., 2021, Semaniuk et al., 2021, Ahmad et al., 2020, Barredo et al., 2020, Colombani and Andersen, 2020, Gäde et al., 2020, Jawkar and Nongthomba, 2020, Lee et al., 2020, Miller et al., 2020, Nässel and Zandawala, 2020, Perry et al., 2020, Roeder, 2020, Toprak et al., 2020, Zhao and Karpac, 2020, Bayliak et al., 2019, Lin et al., 2019, Nässel et al., 2019, Zheng et al., 2019, Gáliková and Klepsatel, 2018, Helfrich-Förster, 2018, Korandová et al., 2018, Lehmann, 2018, Schiemann et al., 2018, Staats et al., 2018, Chng et al., 2017, Jourjine, 2017, Sheng et al., 2017, Strilbytska et al., 2017, Zhao and Karpac, 2017, Alfa and Kim, 2016, Brookheart and Duncan, 2016, Droujinine and Perrimon, 2016, Hallier et al., 2016, Nässel and Vanden Broeck, 2016, Zheng et al., 2016, Krucek et al., 2015, Lee et al., 2015, Yurgel et al., 2015, Owusu-Ansah and Perrimon, 2014, Gruber et al., 2013, Kannan and Fridell, 2013, Nässel et al., 2013, Rajan and Perrimon, 2013, Braco et al., 2012, Herrero, 2012, Rajan and Perrimon, 2011, Ruaud et al., 2011, Beller et al., 2010, Chatterjee et al., 2010, Kühnlein, 2010, Nässel and Winther, 2010, Rhea et al., 2010, Sellami et al., 2010, Sidyelyeva et al., 2010, Hector et al., 2009, Yew et al., 2009, Nässel et al., 2008, Park et al., 2008, Veenstra et al., 2008, Belgacem and Martin, 2007, Grönke et al., 2007, Hoshizaki and Gibbs, 2007, Birse et al., 2006, Baggerman et al., 2005, Johnson et al., 2005, Johnson et al., 2003, Rulifson et al., 2002, Staubli et al., 2002)
    Akh
    (Kubrak et al., 2022, Ceder et al., 2021, De Groef et al., 2021, Garaulet et al., 2021, Hertenstein et al., 2021, Hou and Pei, 2021, Koyama et al., 2021, Lee et al., 2021, Liao et al., 2021, Parra-Peralbo et al., 2021, Rai et al., 2021, Singh et al., 2021, Wat et al., 2021, Yoshinari et al., 2021, Ceder et al., 2020, Kierdorf et al., 2020, Koyama et al., 2020, Malita and Rewitz, 2020, Neamtu et al., 2020, Texada et al., 2020, Walls et al., 2020, Zhou et al., 2020, Brunet Avalos et al., 2019, Chen et al., 2019, Evangelakou et al., 2019, Hudry et al., 2019, Lenaerts et al., 2019, Nagy et al., 2019, Nayak and Mishra, 2019, Rao and Deng, 2019.10.23, Scopelliti et al., 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Bednářová et al., 2018, Chen et al., 2018, Hemphill et al., 2018, Ibrahim et al., 2018, Mochanová et al., 2018, Musselman and Kühnlein, 2018, Ugrankar et al., 2018, Gáliková et al., 2017, Kounatidis et al., 2017, Song et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Cao et al., 2016, Crocker et al., 2016, Kubrak et al., 2016, Kubrak et al., 2016, Kučerová et al., 2016, Ou et al., 2016, Strigini and Leulier, 2016, Wiemerslage et al., 2016, Xu and Wang, 2016, Zemanová et al., 2016, Alfa et al., 2015, Das and Dobens, 2015, Gáliková et al., 2015, Hentze et al., 2015, Matsuda et al., 2015, Sajwan et al., 2015, Ugrankar et al., 2015, Williams et al., 2015, Barrio et al., 2014, Lemaitre and Miguel-Aliaga, 2013, Nässel et al., 2013, Walls et al., 2013, Marella et al., 2012, Ladoukakis et al., 2011, Kim and Marqués, 2010, Sellami et al., 2010, Lee et al., 2008, Wegener and Gorbashov, 2008, Belgacem and Martin, 2007, Reiter et al., 2007, Choi et al., 2005)
    Hrth
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0004086
    • FBgn0004508
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    Study result (0)
    Result
    Result Type
    Title
    References (248)