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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Rap1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Rap1 GTPase
Annotation Symbol
CG1956
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004636
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Rap1 GTPase (Rap1) encodes a small GTPase in the Ras superfamily. When GTP bound, it binds to a number of different effectors, one of which is the product of scno. Together they regulate many morphogenetic movements including mesoderm invagination and dorsal closure, help establish apical-basal polarity during cellularization, regulate macrophage migration, help define neuroblast asymmetric division, and play a role in planar cell polarity in the imaginal discs. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

R, Roughened, Dras3, Rap, ras3

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-1.0
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:1859115..1862239
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (29 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Rgl; FB:FBgn0026376
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables GDP binding
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000631348
(assigned by GO_Central )
enables GTP binding
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000631348
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000631348
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (20 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (18 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:PDZ-GEF; FB:FBgn0265778
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in dorsal closure
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:PDZ-GEF; FB:FBgn0265778
involved_in hemocyte migration
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:smo; FB:FBgn0003444
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Epac; FB:FBgn0085421
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:bsk; FB:FBgn0000229
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001177737
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001177737
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001177737
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in plasma membrane
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000631348
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family. (P08645)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Rap1 GTPase (Rap1) encodes a small GTPase in the Ras superfamily. When GTP bound, it binds to a number of different effectors, one of which is the product of scno. Together they regulate many morphogenetic movements including mesoderm invagination and dorsal closure, help establish apical-basal polarity during cellularization, regulate macrophage migration, help define neuroblast asymmetric division, and play a role in planar cell polarity in the imaginal discs. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
RAS GTPASES -
The Ras family are members of the Ras superfamily of small GTPases. Ras proteins act in signal transduction cascades, generally the activated GTPase recruits and activates downstream effectors. Members this family are typically membrane-associated via isoprenylation of a CaaX motif in the C-terminus. (Adapted from PMID:15731001).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Torso Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The formation of Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of Torso (tor) receptor tyrosine kinase. The Torso signaling pathway acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0157176.)
Positive Regulators of Sevenless Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of Sevenless signaling up-regulate the pathway, promoting cell fate to that of an R7 photoreceptor. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
Positive Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of hedgehog signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the activation of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Negative Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Negative regulators of the pathway promote the nuclear accumulation of yki, enhancing yki-mediated transcriptional regulation and the expression of genes that positively regulate tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Ras proteins bind GDP/GTP and possess intrinsic GTPase activity. Plays a role in photoreceptor cell determination.
(UniProt, P08645)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
R: Roughened
Eyes of R/+ rough, have some large dark facets. Photoreceptor cell 7 frequently absent (Carthew). Male genitalia frequently rotated and male sometimes sterile; viability about 80% wild type. Homozygote semilethal; wings spread. Thorax short; acrostichal hairs deranged, some missing; eyes small. Homozygous female fertile. RK1.
*R51b
Eyes of heterozygote small, oblong, and rough; facets and eye hairs irregular. Viability good. Homozygote lethal. R51b/R has very small eyes, much fusion of facets, and resembles gl and Gl. RK1.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Ras-like GTPase - establishes of cell polarity by regulation of columnar cell shape - controls epithelial invagination via α-Catenin - regulates cell morphology within the developing wing epithelium - regulates radial movement of mesodermal cells during monolayer formation - regulates adhesive contacts necessary for maintenance of Egfr signaling between cells and differentiation of wing veins and photoreceptors

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Rap1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0072867
2741
184
FBtr0303154
2872
184
FBtr0332671
2702
184
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.9, 1.9, 1.5 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0072746
20.9
184
6.58
FBpp0292253
20.9
184
6.58
FBpp0304917
20.9
184
6.58
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

184 aa isoforms: Rap1-PA, Rap1-PB, Rap1-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Rap1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Rap1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 37 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 30 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Rap1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Rap1
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 151 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 151 )
Gene disrupted in
Gene not disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
3  
12 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2  
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (15)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (18)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (7)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
Yes
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (5)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
3 of 12
Yes
No
1 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190H05 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150DY2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0FE5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0FDQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0OOG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (15)
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Hsap\RAP1BL
    4 of 15
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
        Select Layout:
        Legend:
        Protein
        RNA
        Selected Interactor(s)
        Interactions Browser

        Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
        RNA-protein
        Physical Interaction
        Assay
        References
        protein-protein
        Physical Interaction
        Assay
        References
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        esyN Network Key:
        Suppression
        Enhancement

        Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        External Data
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Pathways
        Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
        Torso Signaling Pathway Core Components -
        The formation of Drosophila embryonic termini is controlled by the localized activation of Torso (tor) receptor tyrosine kinase. The Torso signaling pathway acts via the canonical Ras/Raf/MAP kinase cascade. (Adapted from FBrf0157176.)
        Positive Regulators of Sevenless Signaling Pathway -
        Positive regulators of Sevenless signaling up-regulate the pathway, promoting cell fate to that of an R7 photoreceptor. (Adapted from FBrf0127283 and FBrf0221727).
        Positive Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
        Positive regulators of hedgehog signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the activation of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
        Negative Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
        The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Negative regulators of the pathway promote the nuclear accumulation of yki, enhancing yki-mediated transcriptional regulation and the expression of genes that positively regulate tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
        Metabolic Pathways
        FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
        External Data
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        3L
        Recombination map
        3-1.0
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        62B7-62B7
        Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}dlt04276 and P{PZ}slsrL182
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        62B-62B
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Location

        3-1.4

        Right of (cM)
        Notes
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (18)
        Genomic Clones (14)
         

        Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

        cDNA Clones (111)
         

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequenced
        BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of

        Source for identity of: R CG1956

        Source for identity of: Rap1 R

        Source for database merge of

        Source for merge of: R BEST:GH18528

        Additional comments

        Renamed from 'R' to 'Rap1' to represent community usage and to minimise confusion with the 'r' ('rudimentary') gene symbol, from which it differed only by case.

        Other Comments

        R is required for macrophage shape and migration during embryogenesis.

        R and cno proteins act in the same molecular pathway during dorsal closure and the function of both proteins in dorsal closure depends on their ability to interact with each other. R acts upstream of cno in dorsal closure, but unlike cno, is not involved in the stimulation of JNK pathway activity.

        dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

        RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells: cells become round and detached.

        Cells mutant for R condense their adherens junctions to one side of the cell in clones in the wing. This disrupts normal epithelial cell behaviour, leading to the mutant cell clones dispersing into the surrounding wild-type tissue.

        Ras85D-mediated signalling pathways are not influenced by R levels. Ras85D and R seem to function via distinct pathways. R has a regulatory role in morphogenesis in the eye, ovary and embryo. R also plays a role cell migration and cell shaping.

        Candidate gene for quantitative trait locus.

        Analysis of genetic interactions among faf and R and Ras85D reveals that in addition to its critical role anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, faf has a function in undifferentiated cells alter in eye development that involves, probably indirectly, Ras85D and R. These results suggest that cells outside the facet influence cell fates within the facet.

        R is essential for cell proliferation although it is not required for cell survival in post-mitotic cells. It is also required during oogenesis.

        R mutations disrupt the normal cell fate specification in photoreceptor cells.

        The transcription pattern of R was analyzed in neuroblasts derived from tumorous larval brain of l(2)gl larvae and S2 tissue culture cells. R expresses constitutive as well as maternal/embryonic-specific transcripts.

        An unusually low recovery rate of certain classes of deletions for the R locus suggests that a chromosome interval within 62B3-4 to 62D3-4 may be dominantly sensitive to position effects.

        Isolated as a Ras homologue, but also found to share high homology with human Rap.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 63 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
        EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (27)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        BEST:GH18528
        C-ras3
        Rap1
        (Harnish et al., 2021, Gheisari et al., 2020, Samuels et al., 2020, Sun et al., 2020, Volovetz et al., 2020, Chang et al., 2019, Dlugos et al., 2019, Hall et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Rotelli et al., 2019, Bonello et al., 2018, Camp et al., 2018, Sawant et al., 2018, Gilmour et al., 2017, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Parsons and Foley, 2016, Yang et al., 2016, Yoo et al., 2016, Biersmith et al., 2015, Keder et al., 2015, Vlisidou and Wood, 2015, Baril et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Eguchi et al., 2013, Ellis et al., 2013, Guichard et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Coló et al., 2012, Kelsom and Lu, 2012, Spahn et al., 2012, Ding et al., 2010, McMahon et al., 2010, Shirinian et al., 2010, Siekhaus et al., 2010, Franzdóttir et al., 2009, O'Keefe et al., 2009, Sawyer et al., 2009, Ghiglione et al., 2008, Ghiglione et al., 2008, Gonzalez et al., 2008, Harris et al., 2008, Lyulcheva et al., 2008, Ott et al., 2008, Zhang and Therrien, 2008, Boettner and Van Aelst, 2007, Walker et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Hariharan, 2005, Brumby et al., 2004, Boettner et al., 2003, Perez-Moreno et al., 2003, Knox and Brown, 2002, Lee et al., 2002, Tepass, 2002, Braga and Harwood, 2001, Gulli and Peter, 2001, Asha et al., 1999, Ishimaru et al., 1999, Ishimaru et al., 1999, Knox and Brown, 1999, Ridley, 1999, Chen et al., 1997, Fischer et al., 1997, Li et al., 1997, Asha and Hariharan, 1996, Chen et al., 1996, de Nooij et al., 1996, Asha and Hariharan, 1995, Hariharan et al., 1995, Dickson and Hafen, 1993, Hariharan et al., 1991, Simon et al., 1991)
        Ras3
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0003190
        • FBgn0003207
        • FBgn0045818
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (221)