Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\fru
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
fruitless
Annotation Symbol
CG14307
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0004652
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
fruitless (fru) encodes a BTB zinc finger transcription factor that contributes to sexual differentiation of the neural circuits underlying male sexual behavior. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

sat, satori, BTB-VI

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:18,414,273..18,545,586 [-]
Recombination map
3-63
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:18414273..18545586
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (21 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (15 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by CACAO )
involved_in mating behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in sex determination
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (9 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
involved_in copulation
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in sex determination
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001135010
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
fruitless (fru) encodes a BTB zinc finger transcription factor that contributes to sexual differentiation of the neural circuits underlying male sexual behavior. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
C2H2 ZINC FINGER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS -
Zinc finger C2H2 transcription factors are sequence-specific DNA binding proteins that regulate transcription. They possess DNA-binding domains that are formed from repeated Cys2His2 zinc finger motifs. (Adapted from PMID:1835093, FBrf0220103 and FBrf0155739).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Probably acts as a transcriptional regulator. Part of the somatic sex determination hierarchy; sex determination genes transformer (tra) and transformer-2 (tra-2) switch fru splicing from the male-specific pattern to the female-specific pattern through activation of the female-specific fru 5'-splice site. Vital for the development of males and females. Controls the development of the male specific abdominal muscle of Lawrence. Plays a role in male courtship behavior and sexual orientation. Enhances male-specific expression of takeout in brain-associated fat body.
(UniProt, Q8IN81)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
fru: fruitless (J.C. Hall)
Males court but do not mate with females; fru males court other males (especially when such flies also are homozygous for fru) and stimulate vigorous courtship on the part of fru or wild-type males. Mutant males produce volatile compounds different from those generated by normal males, on criteria of gas chromatography and bioassays of behavioral effects of these compounds; females appear to be unaffected by fru, which is not allelic to sr.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

zinc finger transcription factor - sex determination - controls somatic sexual identity - regulates mating behavior - specifies sexually dimorphic neural circuitry in the brain

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
15
Number of Unique Polypeptides
13

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\fru for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Stop-codon suppression (UGA) postulated; FBrf0216884.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0083646
5546
516
FBtr0083641
4159
789
FBtr0083642
5140
854
FBtr0083647
2254
665
FBtr0083643
3539
955
FBtr0083644
6960
688
FBtr0083645
6798
796
FBtr0083640
8399
695
FBtr0083648
2842
870
FBtr0083649
2994
906
FBtr0083650
6650
705
FBtr0083651
3402
854
FBtr0083652
2845
854
FBtr0301284
3554
960
FBtr0330040
8399
882
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

5.0, 4.3 (northern blot); 2.852 (longest cDNA)

9.0, 8.0, 7.9, 7.4, 6.4, 5.4, 4.4 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0083066
55.1
516
5.75
FBpp0083061
84.0
789
7.67
FBpp0083062
91.9
854
6.83
FBpp0083067
72.4
665
7.93
FBpp0083063
102.9
955
7.02
FBpp0083064
73.1
688
7.45
FBpp0083065
86.5
796
7.55
FBpp0083060
75.5
695
7.32
FBpp0089355
93.8
870
6.92
FBpp0089356
97.6
906
6.88
FBpp0089357
76.7
705
7.32
FBpp0089358
91.9
854
6.83
FBpp0089359
91.9
854
6.83
FBpp0290499
103.4
960
7.02
FBpp0303073
97.7
882
7.28
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

854 aa isoforms: fru-PC, fru-PL, fru-PM
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

776, 675 (aa)

Comments

Multiple fru proteins are produced from

alternatively spliced fru transcripts. A female-specific form of fru

protein lacks 101 N-terminal amino acids present in a male-specific fru

protein. Differences are also found in the zinc finger pairs present at

the carboxy terminus. In related proteins, these zinc finger pairs confer

distinct DNA-binding specificity and are expressed in cell-specific

patterns.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\fru using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The sexually dimorphic expression of fru transcript is first observed at 15h APF in the abdominal ganglion and again at 48h APF.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
imaginal disc

Comment: Antibody detects both male and female isoforms.

embryonic/larval hypodermal muscle

Comment: Antibody detects both male and female isoforms.

gonad

Comment: Antibody detects both male and female isoforms.

central nervous system | restricted

Comment: Antibody detects both male and female isoforms.

central nervous system | faint | restricted

Comment: Antibody detects male-specific isoform.

central nervous system | restricted

Comment: Antibody detects male-specific isoform.

nucleus

Comment: 48h APF. Antibody detects male-specific isoform.

adult central nervous system | restricted

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

superior medial protocerebrum | restricted

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult mushroom body | restricted

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult antennal lobe | restricted

Comment: specific to isoform C of fru[M]

adult optic lobe | restricted

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

pupal epidermis

Comment: 24h and 96h APF. Antibody detects both male and female isoforms.

flight muscle

Comment: 24h and 96h APF. Antibody detects both male and female isoforms.

central nervous system | restricted

Comment: Antibody detects male-specific isoform.

adult central nervous system | restricted

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

superior medial protocerebrum | restricted

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult mushroom body | restricted

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult antennal lobe | restricted

Comment: specific to isoform C of fru[M]

adult optic lobe | restricted

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless aDT-b (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aDT-a neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aSP-b (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aSP-a (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aSP-g (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aSP-k (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aDT-d (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless pIP2 neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless pIP-e (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless pIP-h (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless pMP-e (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless M neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aIP3 neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless aSP3 neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless aSP-l neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless pMP-b (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless aDT7 neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

dopaminergic PAM neuron 1

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aDT-h neuron

Comment: specific to isoform C of fru[M]

adult fruitless pIP-a (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoform C of fru[M]

adult fruitless pIP10 (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoform C of fru[M]

adult fruitless aDT-g neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless aIP2 neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless Mb neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless pIP-b neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless Lo neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless aDT4 neuron

Comment: specific to isoform C of fru[M]

adult fruitless vPR1 neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless vPR6 (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless vPR6 (female) neuron

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

adult fruitless dPR1 neuron

Comment: specific to isoform A of fru[M]

adult fruitless vAB3 (male) neuron

Comment: specific to isoform C of fru[M]

Comment: specific to isoforms A and C of fru[M]

Additional Descriptive Data

fru protein is detected in around 1000 neurons in the male pupal brain, including a cluster of neurons located dorsal and medially to the antennal lobe (mAL neurons). Expression is also observed in a subset of neurons in the ventral nerve cord. Almost all neurons that express fru protein also express hb protein. A subset of the neurons marked by fru are also labelled by Scer\GAL4NP0021.

Co-localisation of fru protein and Scer\GAL4dsx.KI is observed in the pMP-e, pIP-e neurons, in the cluster referred to as pC3 and in the abdominal ganglion.

fru is expressed in two neurons of the subesophageal ganglion, and four to eight neurons in the neurosecretory cluster that contains the insulin-like producing neurons.

Expression of fru in the central nervous system peaks in intensity at the second day of pupation and becomes two-fold weaker in adults. It is seen in approximately 20 neuronal clusters distributed throughout the CNS, corresponding to approximately 2000 cells. Expression of fru is seen in the cortex of the pars intercerebralis.

In third instar larvae, the fru isoform common to males and females is expressed in the brain and ventral nerve cord of both males and females. In males, this pattern includes those cells which are labelled by the male-specific antibody. In 48h APF pupae, the signal detected corresponds to the male specific isoform. In 96h APF, labelling is observed in both sexes, although levels in females are weaker. In males, strong signal corresponding to the male-specific isoform is observed. In adults, cytoplasmic staining common to both sexes is observed within the CNS. In males, strong signal is detected corresponding to the male-specific isoform.

The 776aa form of fru protein is male specific.

The 675aa form of fru protein is female specific.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{fru-GAL4.16}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{fru-GAL4.U}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4}11-32
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}fruNP0021
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: TI{TI}fruAmyc
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: TI{TI}fruBmyc
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: TI{TI}fruCmyc
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\fru in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 82 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 49 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of fru
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of fru
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 23 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult abdomen & motor neuron (with Df(3R)fruw24)
adult abdomen & motor neuron (with fruw12)
adult abdomen & motor neuron (with fruw27)
adult brain & neuron | medial | male
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1  
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
No
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091904JH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915067Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0696 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X064J )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (24)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-63
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:18,414,273..18,545,586 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    91A7-91B3
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}sprd05284 and P{PZ}cdi07013&P{lacW}nosj3B6
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    91B1-91B8
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    91B-91B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    The sterility and chain formation phenotypes of In(3R)fru males co-map to the distal In(3R)fru breakpoint.
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (38)
    Genomic Clones (75)
    cDNA Clones (17)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: fru CG7688

      Source for merge of: fru CG7690

      Source for merge of: fru CG14307

      Source for merge of: fru BtbVI

      Additional comments

      Source for merge of fru BtbVI was sequence comparison ( date:000202 ).

      Other Comments

      The Fru[MC] isoform controls both the number of male serotonergic neurons and their patterning into two clusters.

      Loss of Fru[MC] or Fru[ComC] isoforms affects the proliferation or survival of a subset of Fru[M] neurons in the abdominal ganglion.

      Viability and morphological abnormalities are specifically linked to disruption of Fru[ComC] isforms, whereas Fru[MC] controls fertility.

      S2-derived S2-NP cells are treated with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against fru to assess the role of this gene in Stat92E tyrosine phosphorylation.

      fru is required for os-induced Stat92E phosphorylation.

      RNAi generated by PCR using primers directed to this gene causes a cell growth and viability phenotype when assayed in Kc167 and S2R+ cells.

      Embryos that lack most or all fru function have defasciculation defects in the Fas2-positive and BP102-positive axons of the central nervous system and the axons grow along abnormal pathways.

      Males that lack the P1 promoter-derived fru transcripts show a complete absence of sexual behaviour, but no other defects besides the loss of the muscle of Lawrence.

      Males and females that have reduced levels of fru transcripts from the P3 promoter develop into adults but frequently die after failing to eclose.

      fru regulates late-stage courting and mating events in males.

      Analysis of transcription in the viable fru mutant alleles shows that the phenotypes of fru0-1, fru3, fru4 and frusat are due to a failure to appropriately splice P1 transcripts whereas the mutant phenotype of fru1 flies is due to the reduction or absence of P1 transcripts within specific regions of the CNS.

      tra and tra2 regulate sex-specific splicing of fru, inducing female-specific splicing of fru by activating the female-specific fru 5' splice site.

      Behavioural analysis of fru mutants.

      The properties of neurons expressing fru suggests that fru specifies the fates or activities of neurons that carry out higher order control functions to elicit and coordinate the activities comprising male courtship behaviour. Anatomical and behavioural studies of fru mutants are consistent with the function of fru being downstream of tra and tra2. fru has a sex-nonspecific vital function and wild-type fru function is required for nearly all steps of courtship behaviour.

      In common with dsx, fru contains a 13nt repeated element and has been identified as a strong candidate for a gene at the top of the new branch in the sexual development pathway just downstream of tra and tra2.

      fru is involved in the control of sexual behaviour in males as well as the development of the male specific muscle. The fru branch in the hierarchy may function to control sex-specific aspects of nervous system development and function.

      Male specific augmentation of nuclei found in wild type muscle of Lawrence (MOL) fibres is due to the MOL fibres stealing myoblasts destined for neighbouring muscle and is dependent on the fru gene product.

      Muscle of Lawrence (MOL) position fibres in fru mutant males have fewer muscle nuclei compared to wild-type MOL fibres. The fru+ product does not affect the initial distribution or subsequent proliferation of myoblasts in larval stages.

      fru+ may control the male-specific recruitment of myoblasts necessary to create full sized MOL fibres. Based on the HU-ablations the reduction in number of nuclei in MOL position fibres by itself is not sufficient to explain their small size suggesting that fru+ has additional roles in MOL fiber development.

      When elements of the fru locus are genetically aberrant they block the male's ability to curl their abdomen during courtship and disrupt the development of a sex specific muscle spanning the fifth abdominal segment in males, the "muscle of Lawrence".

      Aberrant intervals between song pulses were observed in fru mutant songs.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 126 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BtbVI
      fru
      (Ma et al., 2021, McLaughlin et al., 2021, Phelps et al., 2021, Xie et al., 2021, Anholt et al., 2020, Bravo González-Blas et al., 2020, Chowdhury et al., 2020, Feuillette et al., 2020, Hung et al., 2020, Ishii et al., 2020, Knudsen et al., 2020, Lecheta et al., 2020, Meyer-Nava et al., 2020, Sato and Yamamoto, 2020, Sato and Yamamoto, 2020, Sato et al., 2020, Sato et al., 2020, Schretter et al., 2020, Sun et al., 2020, Wohl et al., 2020, Zhao et al., 2020, Alekseyenko et al., 2019, Deshpande et al., 2019, Iftikhar et al., 2019, Nojima et al., 2019, Sato et al., 2019, Sato et al., 2019, Sethi et al., 2019, Shimaji et al., 2019, Wilinski et al., 2019, Aranha and Vasconcelos, 2018, Croset et al., 2018, Duneau et al., 2018, Garner et al., 2018, Park et al., 2018, Ribeiro et al., 2018, Saurabh et al., 2018, Wu et al., 2018, Chen et al., 2017, Chowdhury et al., 2017, Jang et al., 2017, Li et al., 2017, Machado et al., 2017, Mohr et al., 2017, Schoofs et al., 2017, Schultzhaus et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Yamamoto and Kohatsu, 2017, Auer and Benton, 2016, Coen and Murthy, 2016, Hoopfer, 2016, Huang et al., 2016, Ito et al., 2016, Meissner et al., 2016, Pavlou et al., 2016, Signor et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Xu et al., 2016, Doggett et al., 2015, Fear et al., 2015, Gene Disruption Project members, 2015-, Kern et al., 2015, Kohl et al., 2015, Krüttner et al., 2015, Morgante et al., 2015, Nadimpalli et al., 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Sellami and Veenstra, 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Boyle et al., 2014, Feng et al., 2014, Neville et al., 2014, Rezával et al., 2014, Toshima et al., 2014, Tran et al., 2014, Vernes, 2014, von Philipsborn et al., 2014, Yamamoto et al., 2014, Billeter and Levine, 2013, Castellanos et al., 2013, Crickmore and Vosshall, 2013, Devineni et al., 2013, Djiane et al., 2013, Evans and Cline, 2013, Fan et al., 2013, Fan et al., 2013, Fernández and Kravitz, 2013, Fujita et al., 2013, Haussmann et al., 2013, Manoli et al., 2013, Pavlou and Goodwin, 2013, Sen et al., 2013, Shirangi et al., 2013, Vandersmissen et al., 2013, Yamamoto and Ishikawa, 2013, Yamamoto and Koganezawa, 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013, Zhu and Zhang, 2013, Curran and Chalasani, 2012, Herrero, 2012, Ito et al., 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Lu et al., 2012, Manning et al., 2012, Pikielny, 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Ramdya et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Starostina et al., 2012, Tarone et al., 2012, Thistle et al., 2012, Thistle et al., 2012, Venables et al., 2012, Whitworth et al., 2012, Yoshihara and Ito, 2012, Zwarts et al., 2012, Chang et al., 2011, Gempe and Beye, 2011, Goto et al., 2011, Graveley et al., 2011, Hartmann et al., 2011, Jepson et al., 2011, Jungreis et al., 2011, Kimura, 2011, Li et al., 2011, Meissner et al., 2011, Pan et al., 2011, Stoop and Joller, 2011, von Philipsborn et al., 2011, Weake et al., 2011, Cachero et al., 2010, Certel et al., 2010, Dalton et al., 2010, Fernández-Ayala et al., 2010, Koganezawa et al., 2010, Lorbeck et al., 2010, Mellert et al., 2010, Nojima et al., 2010, Norville et al., 2010, Rideout et al., 2010, Robinett et al., 2010, Rubinstein et al., 2010, Ruiz and Sanchez, 2010, Sobrinho and de Brito, 2010, Yu et al., 2010, Al-Anzi et al., 2009, Branson et al., 2009, Dalton et al., 2009, Dankert et al., 2009, Häsemeyer et al., 2009, Mundiyanapurath et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Shen et al., 2009, Anaka et al., 2008, Barnes et al., 2008, Christensen et al., 2008.4.15, Clyne and Miesenbock, 2008, Datta et al., 2008, Ferri et al., 2008, Goldman and Arbeitman, 2008, Kimura et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Sanders and Arbeitman, 2008, Sanders and Arbeitman, 2008, Yamamoto, 2008, Chan and Kravitz, 2007, Goldman and Arbeitman, 2007, Keleman et al., 2007, Lazareva et al., 2007, Nurminsky, 2007, Quinones-Coello, 2007, Rideout et al., 2007, Spokony and Restifo, 2007, Tran et al., 2007, Vosshall, 2007, Billeter et al., 2006, Billeter et al., 2006, Dorner et al., 2006, Douglas and Levine, 2006, Gailey et al., 2006, Kadener et al., 2006, Kvitsiani and Dickson, 2006, Lee et al., 2006, McIntyre et al., 2006, Shirangi et al., 2006, Villella et al., 2006, Vrontou et al., 2006, Yu and Dickson, 2006, Coffman et al., 2005, Dornan et al., 2005, Gleason, 2005, Usui-Aoki et al., 2005, Billeter and Goodwin, 2004, Yamamoto et al., 2004, Chandler et al., 2003, Davis, 2003, Hall, 2003, Song and Taylor, 2003, Hall, 2002, Kido and Ito, 2002, Kitamoto, 2002, Lee et al., 2001, An et al., 2000, Nilsson et al., 2000)
      fty
      ms(3)06411
      Name Synonyms
      BTB-protein-VI
      fruitless
      (Pang et al., 2021, Funato, 2020, Gao et al., 2020, Newell et al., 2020, Nässel et al., 2019, Shimaji et al., 2019, Aranha and Vasconcelos, 2018, Schultzhaus et al., 2017, Yamamoto and Kohatsu, 2017, Anderson, 2016, Auer and Benton, 2016, Coen and Murthy, 2016, Grabe et al., 2016, Guven-Ozkan et al., 2016, Hoopfer, 2016, Pavlou et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Xu et al., 2016, Asahina et al., 2014, Rezával et al., 2014, Yamamoto et al., 2014, Billeter and Levine, 2013, Castellanos et al., 2013, Devineni et al., 2013, Evans and Cline, 2013, Fernández and Kravitz, 2013, Fujita et al., 2013, Haussmann et al., 2013, Shirangi et al., 2013, Vandersmissen et al., 2013, Yamamoto and Ishikawa, 2013, Yamamoto and Koganezawa, 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013, Ganter et al., 2012, Ramdya et al., 2012, Winbush et al., 2012, Chang et al., 2011, Goto et al., 2011, Graveley et al., 2011, Kimura, 2011, Li et al., 2011, Pan et al., 2011, Fernández-Ayala et al., 2010, Lorbeck et al., 2010, Nojima et al., 2010, Rideout et al., 2010, Robinett et al., 2010, Rubinstein et al., 2010, Sobrinho and de Brito, 2010, Al-Anzi et al., 2009, Branson et al., 2009, Dalton et al., 2009, Dankert et al., 2009, Edwards et al., 2009, Häsemeyer et al., 2009, Mundiyanapurath et al., 2009, Ruedi and Hughes, 2009, Shen et al., 2009, Anaka et al., 2008, Barnes et al., 2008, Datta et al., 2008, Ejima and Griffith, 2008, Ferri et al., 2008, Goldman and Arbeitman, 2008, Hoxha et al., 2008, Huang et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Nilsen and Nelson, 2008, Sanders and Arbeitman, 2008, Stoop and Arthur, 2008, T et al., 2008, Yamamoto, 2008, Anonymous, 2007, Certel et al., 2007, Chan and Kravitz, 2007, Chan and Kravitz, 2007, Goldman and Arbeitman, 2007, Keleman et al., 2007, Miller, 2007, Rideout et al., 2007, Robin et al., 2007, Spokony and Restifo, 2007, Tirian et al., 2007, Tran et al., 2007, Vosshall, 2007, Yamamoto et al., 2007, Anonymous, 2006, Billeter et al., 2006, Billeter et al., 2006, Casper and Van Doren, 2006, Drayna, 2006, Edwards et al., 2006, Gailey et al., 2006, Kadener et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Reaume and Sokolowski, 2006, Shirangi et al., 2006, Villella et al., 2006, Vrontou et al., 2006, Yu and Dickson, 2006, Burnette et al., 2005, Gleason, 2005, Jefferis, 2005, Usui-Aoki et al., 2005, Billeter and Goodwin, 2004, Yamamoto et al., 2004, Davis, 2003, Hall, 2003, Lalli et al., 2003, Song and Taylor, 2003, Hall, 2002, Kitamoto, 2002, An et al., 2000, Nilsson et al., 2000, Ryner, 1996.9.24)
      fruity
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0000728
      • FBgn0001076
      • FBgn0012048
      • FBgn0038623
      • FBgn0038624
      • FBgn0038625
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (588)