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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\msl-1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
male-specific lethal 1
Annotation Symbol
CG10385
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0005617
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) encodes a protein that is thought to form a scaffold to organize the full male-specific-lethal dosage compensation complex, which increases male X chromosome transcription approximately two-fold. msl-1 homozygous mutant males die as larvae, while females are viable. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

MSL1, MSL

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:18,683,720..18,688,800 [-]
Recombination map
2-53
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:18683720..18688800
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (14 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables DNA binding
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:tamo; FB:FBgn0041582
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001092398
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001092398
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in chromosome
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
part_of MSL complex
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
part_of MSL complex
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001092398
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the msl-1 family. (P50535)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
male-specific lethal 1 (msl-1) encodes a protein that is thought to form a scaffold to organize the full male-specific-lethal dosage compensation complex, which increases male X chromosome transcription approximately two-fold. msl-1 homozygous mutant males die as larvae, while females are viable. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MALE SPECIFIC LETHAL COMPLEX -
The Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is a chromatin modifying complex composed of five protein subunits and two non-coding RNAs. MSL is involved in X chromosome dosage compensation in males. (Adapted from FBrf0228243).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
The Msl proteins are essential for elevating transcription of the single X chromosome in the male (X chromosome dosage compensation). Msl-1 is a pioneer protein. Mle, msl-1 and msl-3 are colocalized on the X chromosome. Each of the MSL proteins requires all the other MSLs for wild-type X-chromosome binding. In complex with msl-2, promotes ubiquitination of histone H2B.
(UniProt, P50535)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
kmB
Homozygous males die during embryogenesis.
msl-1: male-specific lethal
Homozygous male embryos hatch but die as much as twelve days later in larval or prepupal stages; females and heterozygous males survive; phenotype slightly more severe in sons of homozygous than of heterozygous mothers. Viability of two-X individuals that develop as phenotypic males (tra2) or intersexes (dsx) is unaffected by msl-1, indicating that the one-X condition is required for msl-1 lethality. No interaction with mle or msl-2 (Belote, 1983, Genetics 105: 881-96). Females heterozygous for Sxlf1 and homozygous for msl-1 show signs of intersexual development [Skripsky and Lucchesi, 1982, Dev. Biol. 94: 153-64 (fig.)]. Pole cells from msl-1 male embryos capable of undergoing normal spermatogenesis when transplanted into wild-type hosts (Bachiller and Sanchez, 1986, Dev. Biol. 118: 379-84). Concluded to be defective in dosage compensation in males based on decreased levels of X-linked-enzyme activities (G6PD, 6GPD, FUM) but not autosomally encoded enzymes (ADH, AO, GPDH, IDH) in homozygous msl-11 and msl-12 male larvae when compared with non-msl-1 controls (Belote and Lucchesi, 1980, Nature 285: 573-75).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

chromatin component - dosage compensation - basic motif, leucine zipper-like motif, glycine-rich motif protein that directly binds DNA - Msl-1 is thought to form a scaffold to organize the full Male-Specific-Lethal dosage compensation complex, which increases male X chromosome transcription approximately two-fold - functional interplay between MSL1 and CDK7 controls RNA polymerase II Ser5 phosphorylation

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\msl-1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0081130
5021
1039
FBtr0343118
3757
1039
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4.8, 4.4, 3.6 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0080674
117.5
1039
5.86
FBpp0309817
117.5
1039
5.86
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1039 aa isoforms: msl-1-PA, msl-1-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

170 (kD observed)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of the male-specific lethal (MSL) histone acetyltransferase complex at least composed of mof, msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3 (PubMed:16543150). Interacts with tamo via the nuclear localization signal (PubMed:12653959).

(UniProt, P50535)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\msl-1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

msl-1 transcripts are detected throughout development and are present in adult males and females.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

msl-1 protein is present in male and female larvae but is much less abundant in females.

msl-1 protein binds to the same sites on the male X chromosome as mle protein. The pattern of binding of H4Ac16 along the X chromosome is largely coincident with that of mle and msl-1.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in chromosome
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
part_of MSL complex
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\msl-1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 22 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 36 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of msl-1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of msl-1
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 10 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
6 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091902KN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091508F6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06U3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04T8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07CG )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the male-specific lethal (MSL) histone acetyltransferase complex at least composed of mof, msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3 (PubMed:16543150). Interacts with tamo via the nuclear localization signal (PubMed:12653959).
    (UniProt, P50535 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-53
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:18,683,720..18,688,800 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    36F11-37A1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG10413EP2164 and P{lacW}l(2)37Dbk16106&P{lacW}Catsupk05424
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    36F7-37A1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (24)
    cDNA Clones (65)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in chromosome misalignment on the metaphase spindle when assayed in S2 cells in the presence of Cdc27 dsRNA. This phenotype cannot be observed when the screen is performed without Cdc27 dsRNA.

      The msl-1 protein shows a clear bias for binding the exons of genes, rather than binding intergenic regions of the chromosome.

      msl-1 has a suggested central role in assembly of the MSL complex.

      Gene products of the male specific lethal (msl) group of genes preferentially associate with the male X chromosome and may have a role in dosage compensation. This may be achieved by regulating an inverse dosage effect, which would be maintained on the male X and nullified on the autosomes.

      Gene products of the male specific lethal (msl) group of genes including msl-1, msl-2, msl-3, mle, and mof are associated with all female chromosomes at a low level but are sequestered to the X chromosome in males. There is evidence for the presence of nucleation sites for association of msl proteins with the X chromosome rather than individual gene binding sites.

      mof colocalises with the MSL complex on the X chromosome: a sequence of binding events results in the formation of the MSL complex on the X chromosome in males and in the targeting of mof to its presumed site of action.

      msl-2 and msl-1 colocalise to a reproducible subset of their wild-type X chromosome sites in the absence of either mle or msl-3.

      X chromosome proteins associated with dosage compensation in melanogaster are sufficiently conserved to allow significant antibody cross-reaction to D.simulans, D.virilis, D.americana.americana and D.pseudoobscura.pseudoobscura chromosomes. Cross reaction is also observed in the X chromosome and the X2 chromosome (2 copies in females and 1 in males) of D.miranda. These results provide evidence that the male-specific lethal proteins can be acquired on previously unrelated chromosome arms during evolution.

      Male-specific lethal (MSL) proteins accumulate in a subregion of male nuclei (the X chromosome) beginning at late blastoderm stage. X chromosomal binding of the MSLs is observed throughout embryonic and larval development in both diploid and polytene tissues. His4 colocalises with the MSLs in embryos. Binding of the MSLs is interdependent in diploid cells and is prevented in female embryonic cells by Sxl.

      Sex- and chromosome-specific binding of the male-specific lethal (msl) proteins occurs in Drosophilid species spanning 4 genera. msl binding correlates with the evolution of the sex chromosomes.

      msl-1 requires msl-2 in order to become associated with the X chromosome. msl-1 binding is prevented in females by the Sxl products derived from the activation of the early Sxl promoter. Association of msl-1 with the X chromosome is stable.

      The products of msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 loci specifically associate with hundreds of sites along the X chromosome in males, but not in females. The binding of each of the four proteins requires the functional products from the other three. 2X3A individuals are mosaic for both Sxl expression and msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 binding to the X chromosome, with a perfect inverse correlation at the cellular level between Sxl expression and msl-1, msl-2, mle and msl-3 X chromosome binding.

      Immunostaining of embryonic and larval stages demonstrates that His4, msl-1 and msl-3 are associated with the male X chromosome as early as gastrulation, while mle binding is not detected until the late embryonic/late larval stages.

      The msl-3, mle and msl-1 gene products may associate with one another in a male-specific heteromeric complex on the X chromosome to achieve its hyperactivation.

      msl-2 gene product specifically interacts with the male X chromosome, as do mle, msl-1 and msl-3. msl-2 colocalises with msl-1 and antibodies directed against either msl-2 or msl-1 co-immunoprecipitate both proteins from male nuclear extracts.

      The expression pattern of msl-1 suggests msl-1 has a maternal component that appears at the beginning of embryogenesis and localises to the male X chromosome at blastoderm.

      Elements needed for dosage compensation are localised to the X chromosome only after blastoderm and msl-dependent dosage compensation is not necessary during the first part of embryogenesis. This suggest the existance of an additional msl-independent dosage compensation mechanism; dosage compensation of run expression at blastoderm is not dependent on male specific lethal genes.

      The binding of mle, msl-1, msl-2 and His4 proteins to the X chromosome are interdependent from early embryogenesis.

      The msl-2 primary transcript may play a role in male specific binding of mle, msl-3 and msl-1 to the X chromosome.

      The gene products of mle and msl-1 bind to the male X chromosome in an identical pattern. The binding sites of H4Ac16 acetylated form of the His4 product are largely coincident with the mle/msl-1 binding sites. This localisation of H4Ac16 protein is dependent on the dosage compensation regulatory pathway.

      Sxl is necessary to prevent the association of msl-1 with the X chromosome in females.

      The four msl gene products interact to form a multiprotein complex.

      Antisera to msl-1 protein label the euchromatic X chromosome through mitosis, but neither the X heterochromatin nor autosomes.

      msl-1, like mle and H4Ac16 (an acetylated form of the His4 product), exhibits a wild type male localisation pattern in Sxl- XX nuclei.

      Sxl negatively regulates the level of msl-1 protein. msl-1 is transcribed in somatic tissues of females and negatively regulated at the post-transcriptional level by msl-2.

      The X chromosome binding of mle requires wild type msl-1, msl-2 and msl-3 functions.

      The msl-1 protein is associated with hundreds of sites along the X chromosomes in males, but not females, consistent with its proposed role in increasing the level of X linked transcription in male nuclei.

      Mutants are defective for dosage compensation in males. Homozygous male embryos hatch but die as much as twelve days later in larval or prepupal stages; females and heterozygous males survive; phenotype slightly more severe in sons of homozygous than of heterozygous mothers. Viability of two-X individuals that develop as phenotypic males (tra21) or intersexes (dsx1) is unaffected by msl-11, indicating that the one-X condition is required for msl-11 lethality.

      Pole cells from msl-11 male embryos are capable of undergoing normal spermatogenesis when transplanted into wild-type hosts.

      Mutants show no interaction with mle1 or msl-21.

      Females heterozygous for Sxlf1 and homozygous for msl-11 show signs of intersexual development.

      Mutants show decreased levels of X-linked-enzyme activities (G6PD, 6GPD, FUM) but not autosomally encoded enzymes (ADH, AO, GPDH, IDH) in homozygous msl-11 and msl-12 male larvae when compared with non-msl controls.

      msl-1 is involved in dosage compensation in males.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 36 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      MSL1
      (Samata et al., 2020, Albig et al., 2019, Albig et al., 2019, Prayitno et al., 2019, Tikhonova et al., 2019, Harumoto and Lemaitre, 2018, Schunter et al., 2017, Chlamydas et al., 2016, Cugusi et al., 2016, Zee et al., 2016, Cugusi et al., 2015, Keller and Akhtar, 2015, Lindehell et al., 2015, Lucchesi and Kuroda, 2015, Apte et al., 2014, Chen et al., 2014, Comoglio and Paro, 2014, Dias et al., 2014, Ferrari et al., 2014, Figueiredo et al., 2014, McElroy et al., 2014, Ferrari et al., 2013, Ilik et al., 2013, Jennings, 2013, Rohrbaugh et al., 2013, Alekseyenko et al., 2012, Conrad et al., 2012, Dunlap et al., 2012, Hohl et al., 2012, Maenner et al., 2012, Menon and Meller, 2012, Philip et al., 2012, Villa et al., 2012, Morra et al., 2011, Regnard et al., 2011, Stenberg and Larsson, 2011, Straub and Becker, 2011, Fauth et al., 2010, Prestel et al., 2010, Raja et al., 2010, Schiemann et al., 2010, Vaquerizas et al., 2010, Deng and Meller, 2009, Grimaud and Becker, 2009, Bachtrog, 2008, Bell et al., 2008, Izzo et al., 2008, Kelley et al., 2008, Kind et al., 2008, Matyunina et al., 2008, Semeshin et al., 2008, Straub et al., 2008, Sural et al., 2008, Bai et al., 2007, Gilfillan et al., 2007, Kind and Akhtar, 2007, Mendjan and Akhtar, 2007, Park et al., 2007, Prasanth and Spector, 2007, Straub and Becker, 2007, Weake and Scott, 2007, Dahlsveen et al., 2006, Furuhashi et al., 2006, Gilfillan et al., 2006, Hamada et al., 2005, Morales et al., 2005, Nusinow and Panning, 2005, Straub et al., 2005, Straub et al., 2005, Bai et al., 2004, Deng and Meller, 2004, Gilfillan et al., 2004, Kelley, 2004, Lee et al., 2004, Morales et al., 2004, Oh et al., 2004, Andersen and Panning, 2003, Carrozza et al., 2003, Dahlsveen et al., 2003, Park et al., 2003, Perrod and Gasser, 2003, Stuckenholz et al., 2003, Wutz, 2003, Deng and Meller, 2002, Smith et al., 2001, Wang et al., 2001, Gu et al., 2000, Kelley and Kuroda, 2000, Pannuti and Lucchesi, 2000, Scott et al., 2000, Scott et al., 2000, Smith et al., 2000, Stuckenholz et al., 1999, Copps et al., 1998)
      km(2)B
      kmB
      Name Synonyms
      Male-Specific Lethal 1
      killer-of-males-B
      male specifc lethal
      male specific lethal 1
      males specific lethal 1
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0001318
      • FBgn0002851
      Datasets (1)
      Study focus (1)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      References (341)