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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\HIS-C
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Histone complex
Annotation Symbol
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010343
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

histone

Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (0 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
    His: Histone
    His refers collectively to five structural genes (His1, His2a, His2b, His3, and His4) for the five different histones (H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4). H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 participate in equimolar quantities in the formation of histone octomers, which form the protein core of nucleosomes. H1 associates with DNA between nucleosomes. The ratio of H1 to nucleosome core histones is higher in the salivary glands of larvae than in the cells of young embryos (Holmgren, Johansson, Lambertsson, and Rasmusson, 1985, Chromosoma 93: 123-31). For primary structure of H2B see Elgin, Schilling, and Hood (1979, Biochemistry 18: 5679-85). The expression of the histone genes changes in mid-embryogenesis (Ambrosio and Shedl, 1985, Dev. Biol. 111: 220-31; Ruddell and Jacobs-Lorena, 1986, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 82: 3316-19). The egg chambers contain a variable and low level of mRNA during nurse cell polytenization; however, at the end of stage 10, all the nurse cells accumulate histone mRNA which is turned over to the growing oocytes as the nurse cells degenerate. Heterozygosity for full or partial deficiency of the histone genes suppresses variegation (BSV, Sbv, wm4); duplications without effect on level of variegation (Moore, Sinclair, and Grigliatti, 1983, Genetics 105: 327-44). Transcription not repressed by heat shock (Spradling, Pardue, and Penman, 1977, J. Mol. Bio. 109: 559-87).
    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    0
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    0
    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model
    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

     

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\HIS-C using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\HIS-C in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 0 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 0 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of HIS-C
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of HIS-C
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 7 )
    Inferred from experimentation ( 7 )
    Gene not disrupted in
    Inferred from location ( 0 )
      Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
      Phenotypes
      For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
      Phenotype manifest in
      Allele
      Orthologs
      Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
      Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
      No records found.
      Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
      Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
      No records found.
      Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
      No records found.
      Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
      No records found.
      Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
      No records found.
      Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
      No records found.
      Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
      No records found.
      Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
      No records found.
      Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
      No records found.
      Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
      No orthologies identified
      Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
      No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
      Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
      No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
      Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
      No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
      Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
      No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
      Paralogs
      Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
      Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
      No records found.
      Human Disease Associations
      FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
        Disease Model Summary Ribbon
        Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
        Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
        Human Ortholog
        Disease
        Evidence
        References
        Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
        Allele
        Disease
        Interaction
        References
        Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
        Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
        Homo sapiens (Human)
        Gene name
        Score
        OMIM
        OMIM Phenotype
        DO term
        Complementation?
        Transgene?
        Functional Complementation Data
        Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
        Interactions
        Summary of Physical Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Interactions Browser
        Summary of Genetic Interactions
        esyN Network Diagram
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        Starting gene(s)
        Interaction type
        Interacting gene(s)
        Reference
        External Data
        Linkouts
        Pathways
        Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
        Metabolic Pathways
        External Data
        Linkouts
        Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
        Chromosome (arm)
        Recombination map
        2-55
        Cytogenetic map
        Sequence location
        FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Evidence for location
        39D3-39E1
        Left limit from in situ hybridisation (FBrf0029738) Right limit from inclusion within Df(2L)L138D-81 (FBrf0036524)
        Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
        Cytogenetic map
        Notes
        References
        39D3-39E2
        (determined by in situ hybridisation)
        Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
        Location

        2-55

        Left of (cM)
        Right of (cM)
        Notes
        Stocks and Reagents
        Stocks (0)
        Genomic Clones (0)
         
          cDNA Clones (0)
           

          Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

          cDNA clones, fully sequenced
          BDGP DGC clones
            Other clones
              Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

              For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

                cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
                BDGP DGC clones
                  Other clones
                    RNAi and Array Information
                    Linkouts
                    Antibody Information
                    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                     
                    Commercially Available Antibodies
                     
                    Other Information
                    Relationship to Other Genes
                    Source for database identify of
                    Source for database merge of
                    Additional comments
                    Other Comments

                    The Histone gene family exists as a discontinuous array of approximately 100 repeats, 8-12 blocks of histone repeats of approximately 10 copies each. Most arrays have multiple repeats with at least one restriction site not present in the published sequence. The repeats with these nonconsensus sites are adjacent to each other, or much less often are separated by a repeat. Therefore movement of variants in the gene family is predominantly to nearest neighbours. The sequence similarity should be a monotonically decreasing function of distance along the histone array.

                    Topoisomerase II cleavage sites in the HIS-C repeat have been studied in vitro and in vivo.

                    HIS-C refers collectively to five structural genes (His1, His2A, His2B, His3, and His4) for the five different histones (H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4). H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 participate in equimolar quantities in the formation of histone octomers, which form the protein core of nucleosomes. Heterozygosity for full or partial deficiency of the histone genes suppresses variegation (BSV, SbV, wm4); duplications without effect on level of variegation. Transcription not repressed by heat shock.

                    The expression of HIS-C genes during oogenesis has been studied, and compared to periods of DNA synthesis and actin expression during this developmental stage.

                    4.8kb and 5.0kb repeats containing the histone genes His1, His2A, His2B, His3 and His4 are present in all of the more than 20 D.melanogaster strains studied. The strains differ in the relative amounts of the two repeat types, with the 5.0kb repeat always present in equal or greater amounts than the 4.8kb repeat. The strains also differ in a number of far less abundant fragments containing histone gene sequences.

                    Origin and Etymology
                    Discoverer
                    Etymology
                    Identification
                    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 17 )
                    Sequence Crossreferences
                    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
                    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (5)
                    Reported As
                    Name Synonyms
                    Secondary FlyBase IDs
                      Datasets (0)
                      Study focus (0)
                      Experimental Role
                      Project
                      Project Type
                      Title
                      References (47)