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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\pll
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
pelle
Annotation Symbol
CG5974
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0010441
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Pelle (pll) encodes a tyrosine kinase-like family serine-threonine protein kinase that functions in the Toll pathway, a signaling cascade that plays key roles in various developmental and immune processes, notably embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and regulation of antimicrobial peptide production. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:27,251,131..27,253,182 [-]
Recombination map
3-92
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:27251131..27253182
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (24 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Pli; FB:FBgn0025574
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Tehao; FB:FBgn0026760
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:P22812
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000719, InterPro:IPR002290, InterPro:IPR017441
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925,PANTHER:PTN002401141
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:tub; FB:FBgn0003882
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Cka; FB:FBgn0044323
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in apoptotic process
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000701353
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000784925
(assigned by GO_Central )
is_active_in plasma membrane
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000701353
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. Pelle subfamily. (Q05652)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Pelle (pll) encodes a tyrosine kinase-like family serine-threonine protein kinase that functions in the Toll pathway, a signaling cascade that plays key roles in various developmental and immune processes, notably embryonic dorso-ventral patterning and regulation of antimicrobial peptide production. [Date last reviewed: 2016-06-30]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
DORSAL GROUP -
The Dorsal group genes encode components of the Toll pathway and were initially identified by maternal effect mutations resulting in the dorsalization of the embryo. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
NON-RECEPTOR TLK KINASES -
Non-receptor tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) kinases are a diverse group of intracellular serine-threonine protein kinases with sequence similarity to tyrosine kinases (TK) but lacking TK-specific motifs.
Pathway (FlyBase)
Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Positive Regulators of Hippo Signaling Pathway -
The Hippo signaling pathway is an intracellular kinase cascade in which hpo kinase in complex with sav, phosphorylates wts kinase which, in turn, phosphorylates yki transcriptional co-activator leading to its cytosolic retention. Positive regulators of the pathway, enhance the cytosolic retention of yki, negatively regulating tissue growth (Adapted from FBrf0224870).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Plays an essential role in the Tl receptor signaling pathway that establishes embryonic dorsoventral polarity; the signal directs import of dl into ventral and ventrolateral nuclei, thereby establishing dorsoventral polarity. Tub recruits pll to the plasma membrane and protein-protein interaction activates pll.
(UniProt, Q05652)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
pll: pelle
Maternal-effect lethal; homozygous females sterile. As in the mutant dl, lethal embryos produced by pll females lack ventral and lateral elements (Anderson and Nusslein-Volhard, 1984). Extreme pll embryos consist of a long, hollow tube with dorsal cuticular structures (Muller-Holtkamp et al., 1985). Dorsalization is also observed in the pattern of ftz stripes in pll embryos (Carroll et al., 1987). Injection of wild-type cytoplasm into pll embryos partially restores the normal embryonic pattern of development (Muller-Holtkamp et al., 1985).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

tyrosine kinase - Toll pathway - dorsal group - involved in signal transduction during induction of dorsal/ventral polarity during early embryogenesis - regulation of antimicrobial peptides.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\pll for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085179
1931
501
FBtr0334732
1852
501
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.9 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084549
56.2
501
8.87
FBpp0306780
56.2
501
8.87
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

501 aa isoforms: pll-PA, pll-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

501 (aa); 56 (kD)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts (via Death domain) with tub (via Death domain). Interacts with Pellino (Pli).

(UniProt, Q05652)
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\pll using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

pll transcripts are expressed most strongly in early embryos and adult females and are observed at a lower level throughout development.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\pll in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 34 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of pll
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of pll
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 18 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
axon & eye photoreceptor cell (with pll2)
axon & eye photoreceptor cell (with pll7)
axon & eye photoreceptor cell (with pll25)
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (14)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (12)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (8)
8 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
5 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (10)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (273)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
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Yes
Yes
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Yes
Yes
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Yes
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No
Yes
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No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091906S3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091503RV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W07F7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07A7 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G08K9 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate