Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.
Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.
Gene model reviewed during 5.50
2.8 (northern blot)
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Dif using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dmel\Dif in GBrowse 2
Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for identity of: Dif CG6794
dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.
Dif does not show high cooperative DNA binding with Dsp1 protein. dl can activate transcription from zen and twi promoters, and additional Dsp1 inhibits the zen activation and increases the twi activation.
Tl pathway is required for the nuclear import of dl in the immune response, but not required for the nuclear import of Dif. Cytoplasmic retention of both dl and Dif depends on cact protein. The two signalling pathways that target cact for degradation must discriminate between cact-dl and cact-Dif complexes.
The molecular evolution of the Rel/NF-κB and IκB proteins is studied in parallel. Phylogenetic analysis allows the structure of the putative ancestor genes to be defined and proposes and evolutionary model that clusters both families in a unique Rel/NF-κB/IκB superfamily.
Antibacterial genes are not induced in L.boulardi resistant strains of Drosophila suggesting they cannot be involved directly in the antiparasitoid response.
dl and Dif have distinct DNA-binding characteristics and the proteins can heterodimerise in vitro. Mutants carrying no copies of dl and a single copy of Dif retain their full capacity to express the Dpt and CecA1 genes in response to bacterial challenge.
Dif is a rel family protein that is thought to function in the humoral immune response.
Injury or bacterial infection leads to rapid translocation of dl and Dif gene products from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, this translocation is regulated in part by Tl signalling pathway. In direction of increasing cytology: Dif? dl?
The Dif gene product is a sequence specific transcription factor which trans-activates the CecA1 gene in cotransfection assays. Transactivation requires a 40bp upstream element including an insect κΒ-like motif. dl can also activate the CecA1 promoter, but to a lesser extent and in a less sequence-specific manner than Dif. The dl product exerts a dominant negative effect on Dif transactivation of CecA1.