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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\rpr
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
reaper
Annotation Symbol
CG4319
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0011706
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
reaper (rpr) encodes Reaper, Hid, Grim (RHG) protein. It contributes to the caspase dependent apoptosis by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic protein encoded by Diap1. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3L:18,397,535..18,398,435 [-]
Recombination map
3-45
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:18397535..18398435
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (25 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Diap1; FB:FBgn0260635
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Diap2; FB:FBgn0015247
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (17 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Diap1; FB:FBgn0260635
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in cell death
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in mitochondrion
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Snapshot
    reaper (rpr) encodes Reaper, Hid, Grim (RHG) protein. It contributes to the caspase dependent apoptosis by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic protein encoded by Diap1. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    RHG PROTEINS -
    RHG proteins possess a 12 amino acid RHG motif. This motif, also known as the IAP-binding motif (IBM), interacts with the BIR domain of Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and relieving IAP-mediated caspase inhibition. Over-expression of individual RHG proteins is sufficient to induce apoptosis. (Adapted from FBrf0225510).
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Activator of apoptosis, as well as grim and hid, that acts on the effector Dredd.
    (UniProt, Q24475)
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    pro-apoptotic Reaper, Hid, Grim (RHG) protein - contributes to the caspase dependent apoptosis by inhibiting the anti-apoptotic Death-associated inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (Diap1) protein

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\rpr for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.46

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0075120
    901
    65
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)

    1.3 (northern blot)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0074886
    7.7
    65
    10.53
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

    Interacts with Diap2 (via BIR2 domain).

    (UniProt, Q24475)
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\rpr using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    organism | restricted

    Comment: 2 stripes of expression

    organism | restricted

    Comment: 4 stripes of expression

    northern blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    rpr expression is almost restricted to the embryonic CNS from stage 15. Some co-expression with grim was observed in neuroblasts.

    The expression of this gene along with several others is induced in salivary glands in pupae at the time of head eversion. This stage is characterized by an increase in the ecdysone titer as well as large amounts of cell death in this tissue.

    rpr transcript can first be detected at embryonic stage 5, in a broad stripe in the anterior half of the embryo, and a fainter posterior stripe. By stage 6, each of these stripes has split into two narrower stripes; one of these stripes, anterior to the cephalic furrow, persists until embryonic stage 10. From embryonic stage 11, rpr is expressed in a complex and dynamic pattern.

    rpr transcript is expressed in salivary glands faintly during the late larval ecdysone pulse, and strongly after the late prepupal ecdysone pulse.

    In the embryo, at stage 7 rpr is expressed in one strong and one weak stripe just posterior to the cephalic forrow, and at stage 8 it is expressed just anterior to the cephalic forrow. rpr expression marks apoptotic cells throughout embryonic development.

    The rpr transcript is expressed in cells fated for apoptosis. In the developing embryo rpr transcript is detected in a segmentally repeated pattern and shows particulate distribution.

    rpr is expressed in a pattern that is very similar to the pattern of programmed cell death as determined by acridine orange staining. The onset of rpr expression typically precedes acridine orange staining by 1 to 2 hours. Double labeling experiments were used to confirm that rpr is expressed in dying cells.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    Additional Descriptive Data

    rpr protein is not detected in Malpighian tubules in embryos or first instar larvae, unlike pro-apoptotic genes W and grim.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    located_in mitochondrion
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    Reporter: P{Rpr-11-lacZ}
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{rpr-lacZ.4-S1}
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{rpr-lacZ.R.11}
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\rpr in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 10 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 60 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of rpr
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of rpr
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 9 )
    Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Sterility
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    eo dendrite & sensillum basiconicum of antennal segment 3, with Scer\GAL4Obp28a.PP
    follicle cell & nucleus | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP
    large sensillum basiconicum of antennal segment 3 & olfactory neuron, with Scer\GAL4Or22a.8197
    large sensillum basiconicum of antennal segment 3 & olfactory neuron, with Scer\GAL4Or22b.10287
    larval hindgut & ectoderm, with Scer\GAL4455.2
    lipid droplet & larval fat body, with Scer\GAL4sal.BO
    macrochaeta & mesothoracic tergum, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
    macrochaeta & scutellum, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
    macrochaeta & tergum, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
    nurse cell & cytoskeleton | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP
    nurse cell & nucleus | somatic clone, with Scer\GAL4Act5C.PP
    olfactory neuron & maxillary palp sense organ
    olfactory neuron & maxillary palp sense organ, with Scer\GAL4Or33c.PG
    olfactory neuron & maxillary palp sense organ, with Scer\GAL4Or42a.PG
    olfactory neuron & maxillary palp sense organ, with Scer\GAL4Or46a.PG
    olfactory neuron & maxillary palp sense organ, with Scer\GAL4Or71a.PG
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
    Species\Gene Symbol
    Score
    Best Score
    Best Reverse Score
    Alignment
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    1 of 15
    Yes
    No
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
    1 of 15
    Yes
    Yes
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190KJN )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150J2W )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
    1 of 10
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      RNA-RNA
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      RNA-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      Interacts with Diap2 (via BIR2 domain).
      (UniProt, Q24475 )
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3L
      Recombination map
      3-45
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3L:18,397,535..18,398,435 [-]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      75C6-75C6
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}W05014 and P{lacW}l(3)j14E7j14E7
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      75C1-75C2
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (19)
      Genomic Clones (28)
      cDNA Clones (8)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of

        Source for merge of: rpr anon-WO0162936.19

        Additional comments

        Can induce or accelerate apoptosis in Xenopus egg extracts, and acts in conjunction with cytoplasmic factors to trigger mitochondrial cytochrome c release.

        Source for merge of rpr anon-WO0162936.19 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

        Other Comments

        rpr self-dimerisation is necessary to promote apoptotic activity.

        rpr is targeted to mitochondria via interaction with W.

        W is required for larval salivary gland cell death during metamorphosis and both rpr and W function in a redundant manner to direct efficient destruction of the larval salivary gland and larval midgut during metamorphosis.

        Most developmental apoptosis is unaffected in rpr single mutants, but the central nervous system is enlarged due to inappropriate survival of both larval neurons and neuroblasts. Mutant males are sterile due to an inability to bend their abdomens sufficiently for copulation.

        The p53 Response Element defined in the rpr upstream region is sufficient for radiation-induced transcription but is unresponsive to signals that promote excess apoptosis during abnormal development.

        rpr may kill cells by inhibiting th's ability to antagonise caspase function.

        Domains in addition to the BIR2 domain of the th gene product are required for rpr, grim and W to inactivate th.

        rpr can induce apoptosis in follicle cells.

        th is epistatic to the mutant phenotype of Df(3L)H99 (deleted for rpr, W, and grim).

        rpr, W and grim promote apoptosis by disrupting interactions between the th and Dcp-1 proteins.

        rpr may participate in initiating apoptosis by stably blocking K+ channels.

        Apoptosis of SL2 cells that is induced by expression of rpr can be partially prevented by expression of Cele\ced-9, Hsap\BCL2 and Hsap\BCL2L1.

        Expression of death inducers rpr and W and the repression of death inhibitor Iap2 correlates with the onset of histolysis in the larval salivary gland, suggesting that programmed cell death may be coordinated by both inductive and repressive mechanisms.

        Targetted expression of W or rpr alone in the midline cells is not sufficient to induce ectopic cell death. Coexpression rapidly induces cell death that results in axon scaffold defects characteristic of mutants with abnormal midline cell development. Results suggest that rpr and W are expressed together and cooperate to induce programmed cell death during development of the central nervous system midline.

        Characterisation of grim suggests the encoded apoptotic function is upstream of putative Cys proteases and grim activity parallels that of rpr and W. Because grim triggered extensive apoptosis in at least one developmental context where rpr was not sufficient, it is possible that these proteins enter a common apoptotic pathway at different sites.

        Cell death activity mediated by rpr is distinct from signalling by the mammalian tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 death domain.

        Expression of rpr RNA anticipates cell killing induced either by an exogenous agent (ionising radiation) or in association with congenital defects. These responses are mediated at the level of transcriptional control by upstream sequence elements. Expression of rpr is sufficient to induce apoptosis and these cell deaths can be prevented by a viral inhibitor.

        Induction of rpr expression in Schneider cells stimulates apoptosis, which can be blocked by Z-VAD-fmk, implicating an ICE-like protease as a requirement for rpr function.

        The rpr gene product is sufficient to cause cell death. rpr appears to activate a death program mediated by a ced-3/ICE (interleukin-1 converting enzyme)-like protease.

        Expression of rpr is both necessary and sufficient for developmental cell death. Amino acid sequence homology is observed between the cytoplasmic domains of mouse and human Fas and TNFR1, respectively, and rpr.

        P{hs-hid} heat induced ectopic cell death in wild type embryos is lethal, this lethality is not augmented by the presence of endogenous rpr.

        Mutations in th are dominant enhancers of rpr induced cell death.

        Glial apoptosis is blocked in embryos deficient for rpr.

        rpr mRNA is specifically found in cells destined to die one or two hours before they show signs of degeneration. rpr mRNA is also rapidly induced upon X irradiation prior to widespread cell death.

        rpr is a key regulatory gene in the cell death process, ectopic expression of rpr is sufficient to induce cell death in many types of cell.

        Programmed cell death plays a crucial role in the development of the central nervous system midline and dying midline cells are rapidly eliminated by phagocytosis. Generation of engulfment signals in cells undergoing programmed cell death is downstream of rpr gene function. Central nervous system midline and/or ventral epidermal cells provide directional cues for migrating macrophages.

        rpr represents a key regulatory switch for the activation of apoptosis in response to a variety of distinct signals.

        rpr plays a central and global regulatory function for the initiation of apoptosis. rpr gene product itself is not a part of the cell death effector machinery.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 29 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        MARRVEL_MODEL
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
        MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        anon-WO0162936.19
        rpr
        (Cabasso et al., 2021, DeAngelis et al., 2021, Fan et al., 2021, Lee and Adams, 2021, Martin et al., 2021, Maurya et al., 2021, Millington et al., 2021, Nishida et al., 2021, Potter, 2021.7.23, Tain et al., 2021, Wang et al., 2021, Xie et al., 2021, Agbu et al., 2020, Ai et al., 2020, Bataillé et al., 2020, Harris et al., 2020, Hildebrandt et al., 2020, Kierdorf et al., 2020, La Marca and Richardson, 2020, Li and Hidalgo, 2020, Palu et al., 2020, Pop et al., 2020, Ribeiro Lopes et al., 2020, Saini et al., 2020, Scott et al., 2020, Slaidina et al., 2020, Sudhakar et al., 2020, Ulgherait et al., 2020, Wang and Spradling, 2020, Weigelt et al., 2020, Wilson et al., 2020, Xu et al., 2020, Zeng et al., 2020, Arya et al., 2019, Binh et al., 2019, Duy Binh et al., 2019, Ghosh et al., 2019, Hall et al., 2019, Harding and White, 2019, Herrera and Bach, 2019, Hwang et al., 2019, Jiang et al., 2019, Katsube et al., 2019, Khan et al., 2019, Lee et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Moreno et al., 2019, Morimoto et al., 2019, Pahl et al., 2019, Palu et al., 2019, Park et al., 2019, Robin et al., 2019, Sanchez Bosch et al., 2019, Sanchez et al., 2019, Simon et al., 2019, Snigdha et al., 2019, Tsogtbaatar et al., 2019, Xu et al., 2019, Ahmed-de-Prado and Baonza, 2018, Alpar et al., 2018, Ameku et al., 2018, Anthoney et al., 2018, Chen et al., 2018, Córdoba and Estella, 2018, Feng et al., 2018, Jeong et al., 2018, Kang et al., 2018, Mlih et al., 2018, Mondal et al., 2018, Obata et al., 2018, Paul et al., 2018, Verghese and Su, 2018, Volin et al., 2018, Xu et al., 2018, Zhang et al., 2018, Ambrosini et al., 2017, Erceg et al., 2017, Kang et al., 2017, Khan et al., 2017, Kojima, 2017, Martín et al., 2017, Schott et al., 2017, Tain et al., 2017, Tavignot et al., 2017, Xie et al., 2017, Bhogal et al., 2016, Cinnamon et al., 2016, Harris et al., 2016, Jenny and Basler, 2016, Jones et al., 2016, Kashio et al., 2016, Koerver et al., 2016, Ko et al., 2016, Kuleesha et al., 2016, Tamori et al., 2016, Verghese and Su, 2016, Xu et al., 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Ayyaz et al., 2015, Benmimoun et al., 2015, Bosch et al., 2015, Chakraborty et al., 2015, Di Cara et al., 2015, Dwivedi et al., 2015, Edman et al., 2015, Fuwa et al., 2015, Garelli et al., 2015, Kavi et al., 2015, Kim et al., 2015, Kovacs et al., 2015, Louis et al., 2015, Martínez-Morentin et al., 2015, Serbus et al., 2015, Van De Bor et al., 2015, Wang and Baker, 2015, Wang et al., 2015, Wu et al., 2015, Wu et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Bhaskar et al., 2014, Bilak et al., 2014, Chuang et al., 2014, Córdoba and Estella, 2014, Fu et al., 2014, Ihry and Bashirullah, 2014, Liu et al., 2014, Merlo et al., 2014, Nakayama et al., 2014, Neuman et al., 2014, Selcho et al., 2014, Sha et al., 2014, Simón et al., 2014, Song et al., 2014, Steller et al., 2014.7.9, Tanaka et al., 2014, Truscott et al., 2014, Yang et al., 2014, Zhang et al., 2014, Aleksic et al., 2013, Bergwitz et al., 2013, 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