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Important message

Updated sequence information for this Drosophila species is no longer provided by FlyBase. Gene model annotations for this species are now updated and maintained at NCBI, using the gnomon automated annotation pipeline. See the NCBI page ‘Eukaryotic genomes annotated at NCBI’.

The FlyBase BLAST tool will continue to support queries against the reference genome of this species, but not queries against annotated transcripts or proteins. For the current release, there is no JBrowse or GBrowse view of the gene model annotations for this species.

The FlyBase archived release FB2017_05 includes the last NCBI annotation update for this species that was imported into FlyBase. That sequence data can be accessed from archived gene reports, via the archived GBrowse tool, and via archived bulk-data downloads.

General Information
D. simulans
Alcohol dehydrogenase
Annotation Symbol
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As


GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (2 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002424, InterPro:IPR002425
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002425
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) family. (Q24641)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
Number of Unique Polypeptides
Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
Comments on Gene Model
Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
External Data
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dsim\Adh using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dsim\Adh in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 2 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 2 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Dsim\Adh
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Dsim\Adh
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 0 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Phenotype manifest in
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila melanogaster (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190EAD )
    Common Name
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila melanogaster
    fruit fly
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Interactions Browser
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      External Data
      Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
      (UniProt, Q24641 )
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      Recombination map
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (0)
      Genomic Clones (0)
        cDNA Clones (0)

        Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

        cDNA clones, fully sequenced
        BDGP DGC clones
          Other clones
            Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

            For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

              cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
              BDGP DGC clones
                Other clones
                  RNAi and Array Information
                  Antibody Information
                  Laboratory Generated Antibodies
                  Commercially Available Antibodies
                  Other Information
                  Relationship to Other Genes
                  Source for database identify of
                  Source for database merge of
                  Additional comments
                  Other Comments

                  The frequency distribution of "silent" DNA polymorphisms has been studied in a number of D.simulans and D.pseudoobscura.pseudoobscura genes.

                  Oviposition sites of mutant females on standard medium and acetic acid supplement medium suggest flies search for oviposition sites they are pre-adapted for.

                  The phylogenetic relationships and divergence times of 39 drosophilid species have been studied by using the coding region of the Adh gene.

                  Dsim\Adh has been compared with the Adh sequences of the other members of the melanogaster species subgroup.

                  Adh activity in 71 Drosophila species is assayed to determine if the protein plays a key role in the adaptation of species to substrates undergoing alcoholic fermentation.

                  The in situ localization of Adh transcripts in different species reveals evolved regulatory differences in spatially restricted expression.

                  A comparison of the number of amino acid replacements to synonymous substitutions between Adh, Dsim\Adh and Dyak\Adh locus was performed to test the neutral theory of protein evolution hypothesis. An excess of replacement substitutions was found suggesting adaptive fixation of selectively advantageous mutations.

                  The only consistent differences between D.melanogaster and D.simulans are in the pupal RNA level and in late adult gene activity and CRM level.

                  McDonald and Kreitman (Nature 351: 652--654) claim adaptive mutations are responsible for the evolution of the Adh locus. In a general test of the hypothesis designed to evaluate the average nucleotide substitutions for all pairwise combinations of sequences within and between species, results do not support the conclusion that there is a significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions resulting from adaptive fixation of mutants.

                  P-element transformation has been used to perform an interspecific gene transfer experiment. This demonstrated that the expression difference between D.melanogaster and Dsim\Adh gene is due to trans-acting not cis-acting modifiers within the Adh gene.

                  Dsim\Adh and Adh enzymes differentially regulated in hybrids.

                  D.simulans flies are not found in wine cellars: they are less tolerant than D.melanogaster to the ethanol concentration in the air.

                  Origin and Etymology
                  External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 35 )
                  Sequence Crossreferences
                  NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
                  GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
                  GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
                  UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
                  Other crossreferences
                  • Dsim_gnomon_101_gene.31695198
                  KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
                  Synonyms and Secondary IDs (7)
                  Datasets (0)
                  Study focus (0)
                  Experimental Role
                  Project Type
                  References (90)