Updated sequence information for this Drosophila species is no longer provided by FlyBase. Gene model annotations for this species are now updated and maintained at NCBI, using the gnomon automated annotation pipeline. See the NCBI page ‘Eukaryotic genomes annotated at NCBI’.
The FlyBase BLAST tool will continue to support queries against the reference genome of this species, but not queries against annotated transcripts or proteins. For the current release, there is no JBrowse or GBrowse view of the gene model annotations for this species.
The FlyBase archived release FB2017_05 includes the last NCBI annotation update for this species that was imported into FlyBase. That sequence data can be accessed from archived gene reports, via the archived GBrowse tool, and via archived bulk-data downloads.
Forms a heterodimer with timeless (TIM); the complex then translocates into the nucleus.
Phosphorylated with a circadian rhythmicity, probably by the double-time protein (dbt). Phosphorylation could be implicated in the stability of per monomer and in the formation of heterodimer per-tim (By similarity).
Contains a remarkable run of alternating Gly-Thr residues which is polymorphic in length. At least four types of Gly-Thr length exist in the natural population, (Gly-Thr)23 (shown here), (Gly-Thr)24, (Gly-Thr)25, and one minor variant (Gly-Thr)21. This Gly-Thr stretch is implicated in the maintenance of circadian period at different temperatures. Deletion of the repeat leads to a shortening of the courtship song cycle period, and thus could be important for determining features of species-specific mating behavior (By similarity).
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dsim\per using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dsim\per in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
D.melanogaster females do not discriminate between males carrying D.melanogaster or D.simulans per genes, indicating that the per locus may only make a small contribution to total premating isolation between the two species.
A 1.9 kb region of per has been compared in D.melanogaster, D.simulans, D.sechellia and D.mauritiana, and reveals a complex history. D.simulans appears to be a parent species to D.sechellia and D.mauritiana, but the order of appearance of the two species remains unclear. Whereas D.simulans and D.mauritiana share a large number of polymorphisms, D.sechellia shows very little variation.
Courtship song rhythms and locomotor activity rhythms were assayed in D.melanogaster carrying the Dsim\per gene or D.melanogaster/D.simulans per gene fusions. In all cases the circadian periodicities were slightly longer than for wild type, suggesting that the 13.2kb per fragment used to make the transgenic constructs is slightly inadequate at performing wild type per function.
Chimeric per gene constructs from D.melanogaster and D.simulans have been used to map the genetic control of their courtship song rhythm difference to a small segment of the amino acid encoding information within per.
By analysing the singing of D.simulans and D.melanogaster reciprocally hybrid males the genetic etiology of the song rhythm difference is due to 1-4 amino acid replacements that have occurred over evolutionary time.
Dsim\per gene has been cloned and sequenced: comparison of the coding regions reveals a pattern of highly diverged areas interwoven with large conserved regions. Transformation experiments involving the Thr-Gly encoding region of per (Yu, Nature 326:765 ) suggest that the Thr-Gly repeat may play a role in determining song cycles, Dyak\per has 24 Thr-Gly pairs and has a short 35 to 40 second song rhythm.