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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\BEAF-32
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Boundary element-associated factor of 32kD
Annotation Symbol
CG10159
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0015602
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Boundary element-associated factor of 32kD (BEAF-32) encodes a DNA-binding protein with binding sites near transcription start sites. Its roles include chromatin domain insulator function, gene regulation and genome organization. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

BEAF, BEAF32, BEAF-32B, BEAF-32A, boundary element-associated factor

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-72
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:14770469..14772630
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (10 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables DNA binding
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:dwg; FB:FBgn0000520
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
involved_in oogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with chromatin
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Boundary element-associated factor of 32kD (BEAF-32) encodes a DNA-binding protein with binding sites near transcription start sites. Its roles include chromatin domain insulator function, gene regulation and genome organization. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MADF-BESS DOMAIN TRANSCRIPTION REGULATORS -
The MADF-BESS domain transcription regulators include a variety of activators and corepressors and chromatin modifying proteins. BESS domains are often present in combination with MADF domains. The BESS domain mediates protein-protein interactions. (Adapted from FBrf0155780 and FBrf0224045).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\BEAF-32 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.44

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087441
1192
283
FBtr0087442
1173
282
FBtr0305588
1558
282
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.205 (longest cDNA)

1.3 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0086571
31.7
283
6.51
FBpp0086572
31.8
282
6.52
FBpp0294039
31.8
282
6.52
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

282 aa isoforms: BEAF-32-PB, BEAF-32-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

282 (aa); 32 (kD predicted)

283 (aa); 40, 38 (kD observed); 32 (kD predicted)

Comments

Two BEAF-32 proteins differ in their amino-terminal sequences presumably as a result of alternative splicing at the 5' end of the gene. Heterocomplexes were found which contain both forms of BEAF-32 protein. The BEAF-32 proteins were shown to have C-terminal protein interaction domains and N-terminal DNA-binding domains.

External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\BEAF-32 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
colocalizes_with chromatin
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\BEAF-32 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
  • Stages(s) 1-3
  • Stages(s) 4-6
  • Stages(s) 7-8
  • Stages(s) 9-10
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 6 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of BEAF-32
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of BEAF-32
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 0 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190FC4 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Drosophilid orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0CB3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-72
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    51C2-51C2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Rpn6k00103 and P{PZ}chn02064
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    51D1-51D1
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (15)
    Genomic Clones (21)
    cDNA Clones (52)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for BEAF-32 protein in Kc167 cells; see Chromatin_types_NKI collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO_GSE22069 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE22069).

      DNA-protein interactions: genome-wide binding profile assayed for BEAF-32 protein in 0-12 hr embryos; see Insulator_Class_I.mE01 collection report. Individual protein-binding experiments listed under "Samples" at GEO: 16245 (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE16245).

      BEAF-32 is required for the insulator activity of scs', but not for the scs or gypsy\su(Hw)BR insulators. BEAF-32 function also affects chromatin structure or dynamics.

      Dref and BEAF-32 may compete for binding to overlapping sites in vivo.

      The properties of two BEAF-32 protein isoforms, which differ in their amino termini, have been analysed.

      A novel protein that binds to scs' but not scs in vivo. Ecol\CAT assays in culture cells identify BEAF-32 together with the palindromic binding site within scs' as components of the scs' boundary function.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 52 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (21)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      BEAF-32
      (Cattenoz et al., 2021, Peterson et al., 2021, Dong et al., 2020, Funikov et al., 2020, Fursova et al., 2020, Melnikova et al., 2020, Meyer-Nava et al., 2020, Omura and Lott, 2020, Rozenwald et al., 2020, Rust et al., 2020, Santana et al., 2020, Sigalova et al., 2020, Cardozo Gizzi et al., 2019, Chen and Lei, 2019, Kostyuchenko et al., 2019, Luzhin et al., 2019, Matthews and White, 2019, Pal et al., 2019, Parey and Crombach, 2019, Shokri et al., 2019, Vorobyeva and Mazina, 2019, Zykova et al., 2019, Bischof et al., 2018, Mourad and Cuvier, 2018, Pokholkova et al., 2018, Wang et al., 2018, El-Sharnouby et al., 2017, Gerland et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Mourad et al., 2017, Duarte et al., 2016, Jukam et al., 2016, Kwon et al., 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Tsai et al., 2016, Ulianov et al., 2016, Zielke et al., 2016, Chen et al., 2015, Dai et al., 2015, Dietz et al., 2015, Li et al., 2015, Maksimenko et al., 2015, Nikalayevich and Ohkura, 2015, Schertel et al., 2015, Wei et al., 2015, Ho et al., 2014, Luck et al., 2014, Matzat and Lei, 2014, Van Bortle et al., 2014, Zhimulev et al., 2014, Gurudatta et al., 2013, Kellner et al., 2013, Li and Zhou, 2013, Merzetti et al., 2013, Rubin and Green, 2013, Antao et al., 2012, Figueiredo et al., 2012, Gurudatta et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Philip et al., 2012, Sakoparnig et al., 2012, Schwartz et al., 2012, Van Bortle et al., 2012, Yang et al., 2012, Demakov et al., 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Pruteanu-Malinici et al., 2011, Richter et al., 2011, Vatolina et al., 2011, Vatolina et al., 2011, modENCODE Consortium et al., 2010, Nègre et al., 2010, Schoborg and Labrador, 2010, van Bemmel et al., 2010, van Steensel et al., 2010, Wallace et al., 2010, Berkaeva et al., 2009, Doheny et al., 2008, Petesch and Lis, 2008, Somma et al., 2008, Dubois et al., 2007, Pathak et al., 2007, Reiter et al., 2007, Gilbert et al., 2006, Ramos et al., 2006)
      Name Synonyms
      Boundary Element Associated Factor of 32
      Boundary element-associated factor
      Boundary element-associated factor of 32kD
      boundary element associated factor
      boundary element associated factor 32
      boundary element-associated factor
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0013752
      Datasets (6)
      Study focus (6)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      • transgene_used
      The insulator protein SU(HW) modulates nuclear lamina interactions of the Drosophila genome.
      • transgene_used
      Protein profiling reveals five principal chromatin types in Drosophila cells.
      • RNAi_target
      Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in fly tissues by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      • RNAi_target
      Genome-wide localization of histones and their modifications in cell lines by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      • bait_protein
      Genome-wide localization of insulator proteins by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
      References (232)