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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\amon
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
amontillado
Annotation Symbol
CG6438
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0023179
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
amontillado (amon) encodes a member of the Prohormone Convertase (PC) family of proteolytic enzymes. PCs generally recognize conserved basic amino acid sequences within protein precursors to direct catalysis of specific cleavage. amon product directly cleaves sli protein and may also target the propeptide encoded by Akh. It is also required for the production of bioactive neuropeptide hormones (e.g. those encoded by Hug, Crz, Ms, Capa and sNPF). [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

PC2, dPC2, Ppp

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:26,697,697..26,714,159 [-]
Recombination map
3-91
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:26697697..26714159
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (14 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002451026
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in hatching behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in proteolysis
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002451042
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in protein processing
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002451026
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002451042
(assigned by GO_Central )
located_in membrane
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002451026
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002451042
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
amontillado (amon) encodes a member of the Prohormone Convertase (PC) family of proteolytic enzymes. PCs generally recognize conserved basic amino acid sequences within protein precursors to direct catalysis of specific cleavage. amon product directly cleaves sli protein and may also target the propeptide encoded by Akh. It is also required for the production of bioactive neuropeptide hormones (e.g. those encoded by Hug, Crz, Ms, Capa and sNPF). [Date last reviewed: 2018-09-20]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES -
Proprotein convertases are serine endopeptidases related to bacterial subtilisin-like enzymes. They activate a broad range of secretory proteins via post-translational cleavage of inactive precursor molecules. The targets and substrates of these convertases are very varied covering many aspects of cellular biology and communication. (Adapted from PMID:22204726.)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\amon for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085048
3991
654
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

4 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0084420
71.7
654
7.16
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\amon using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

amon transcripts are observed in the third instar larval midgut. The highest levels are found in the anterior midgut and in the anterior-most part of the posterior midgut.

amon-XR transcript is found in the cells of the corpus cardiacum in larva.

amon transcript is first detected in stage 15-16 embryos. Expression peaks in stage 17 embryos. Expression levels are low in larval and most pupal stages, then increase in late pupae and peak in adults. In the embryo, expression is detected in subsets of the nervous systems, endocrine system, and the gut. In late stage 17 embryos, expression is detected in the epiphysis and the antennal maxillary complex, but this expression disappears by mid-first larval instar. The number of amon expressing cells in the brain and ventral nerve cord are approximately 168 in late embryos; this number decreases by about 85% by second instar larval stage. Approximately 4 cells in the middle protocerebrum of the brain maintain high levels of amon expression throughout larval development.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

amon immunoreactivity is observed in the larval dorsomedial neurosecretory cells of the larval brain, in paired neurons in the ventral nerve cord, and in endocrine cells in the larval midgut.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{amon-GAL4.R}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}386Y
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\amon in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of amon
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of amon
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 2 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
1  
4 of 15
No
Yes
1  
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (16)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (15)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (17)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903PX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150236 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01VK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X02T5 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G05HI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (4)
4 of 10
4 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-91
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:26,697,697..26,714,159 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    97C4-97C5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}scribj7B3 and P{lacW}His2AvL1602
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    97C2-97C3
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    97D1-97D2
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (17)
    Genomic Clones (30)
    cDNA Clones (81)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of
      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: amon Ppp

      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      amon is required during pupal development for head eversion, leg and wing disc extensin and abdominal differentiation.

      The protease encoded by amon cleaves on the carboxyl side of the sequence Lys-Arg.

      amon has a role in triggering hatching behaviour.

      Larvae lacking amon function have a defect in hatching behaviour; the frequency of head swinging (which in wild-type larvae results in the larvae scraping through the eggshell with their mouth hooks) is greatly reduced and they do not hatch.

      Identification: Sequence similarity to the mammalian secretory vesicle associated protease PC2.

      The similarity with mammalian and S.cerevisiae proteins suggests a potential role of amon in processing of neuropeptide and hormone precursors.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      The gene is named "amontillado" from the title of the Edgar Allen Poe story ("The cask of amontillado") about a man who is walled-in while still alive.

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 44 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (11)
      Reported As
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
      • FBgn0004877
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (96)