Open Close
General Information
Symbol
Dmel\par-6
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
par-6
Annotation Symbol
CG5884
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0026192
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
par-6 (par-6) encodes a scaffold protein that forms a complex with the products of baz and aPKC and with other cortical, cytoskeletal and regulatory proteins. It is involved in cell polarization, actin-based protrusion formation and tracheal branching. [Date last reviewed: 2019-06-13] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

DmPar-6, DmPar6, DPar-6, DPar6

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-58
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:17703352..17707096
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (30 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:sdt; FB:FBgn0261873
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001019968
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (20 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:mts; FB:FBgn0004177
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in synapse assembly
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (10 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR034873
(assigned by InterPro )
involved_in centrosome cycle
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001019969
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001019968
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001019968
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
located_in terminal bouton
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001019968
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
is_active_in cell cortex
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001019968
(assigned by GO_Central )
located_in cell cortex
traceable author statement
is_active_in nucleus
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001019968
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
par-6 (par-6) encodes a scaffold protein that forms a complex with the products of baz and aPKC and with other cortical, cytoskeletal and regulatory proteins. It is involved in cell polarization, actin-based protrusion formation and tracheal branching. [Date last reviewed: 2019-06-13]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PAR COMPLEX -
The PAR complex is an evolutionarily conserved ternary protein kinase complex that plays an important role in the regulation of cell polarity required for asymmetric cleavage of many cell types. (Adapted from FBrf0238574 and FBrf0210666).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of hedgehog signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the activation of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

PDZ domain transcription factor required for asymmetric cell division of neuroblasts and for the maintenance of oocyte cell fate - regulates gene expression in muscles and in circadian clock neurons.

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\par-6 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry O97111)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074455
3032
351
FBtr0074456
2564
351
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

2.1 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074229
38.5
351
6.76
FBpp0074230
38.5
351
6.76
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

351 aa isoforms: par-6-PA, par-6-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\par-6 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism | ubiquitous

Comment: slightly elevated in developing gut

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
epithelium

Comment: expressed in more cells, but more concentrated in epithelial tissues

neuroblast

Comment: apical crescent at interphase and metaphase; delocalized at interphase

epithelium

Comment: localized to 2 dots at apicolateral cortex

epithelium

Comment: 2 dots slightly apical to adherens junction

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

colocalizes with aPKC at presynapse and in muscle, but is also expressed in peribouton area of the muscle where aPKC is absent.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in apical cortex
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
located_in terminal bouton
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\par-6 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 30 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of par-6
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of par-6
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 2 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
border follicle cell & filopodium | ectopic, with Scer\GAL4slbo.2.6, Scer\GAL4upd1.PU
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
1  
12 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (5)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
9 of 13
No
Yes
7 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
8 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
6 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-RNA
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of hedgehog signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the activation of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Metabolic Pathways
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-58
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
16C1-16C1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1464 and P{EP}EP970
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (17)
Genomic Clones (12)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (256)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
Other clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of
Additional comments
Other Comments

S2 cells treated with dsRNA generated against this gene show reduced phagocytosis of Candida albicans compared to untreated cells.

dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene causes a phenotype when assayed in S2R+ cells: cells become round and detached. Kc167 cells are unaffected.

baz and par-6 proteins are interdependent for their asymmetric localisation at the apical cell cortex of epithelial cells and neuroblasts in the embryo.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 48 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (20)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Dm-Par-6
Par6
(Jossin, 2020, Loyer and Januschke, 2020, Majumdar and Liu, 2020, Mathew et al., 2020, Sun et al., 2020, van Soldt and Cardoso, 2020, Wen, 2020, Yaghmaeian Salmani and Thor, 2020, Bonello and Peifer, 2019, Brantley and Fuller, 2019, Jiang et al., 2019, Kono et al., 2019, Link et al., 2019, Luo et al., 2019, Nunes de Almeida et al., 2019, Calero-Cuenca et al., 2016, Flores-Benitez and Knust, 2016, Luo et al., 2016, Roman-Fernandez and Bryant, 2016, Sarov et al., 2016, Walther et al., 2016, Yasugi and Nishimura, 2016, Bajaj et al., 2015, Bell et al., 2015, Bunker et al., 2015, Cao et al., 2015, Francis and Ghabrial, 2015, Kamiyama et al., 2015, Ohno et al., 2015, Rosa et al., 2015, Schweisguth, 2015, Pichaud, 2014, Yashiro et al., 2014, Chai et al., 2013, Chen and Zhang, 2013, Culurgioni and Mapelli, 2013, Enderle and McNeill, 2013, Noatynska et al., 2013, Yu and Guan, 2013, Fletcher et al., 2012, Homem and Knoblich, 2012, Liu et al., 2012, Speese et al., 2012, Tepass, 2012, Carmena et al., 2011, Laprise and Tepass, 2011, Mathew et al., 2011, Pocha et al., 2011, Rodrigues et al., 2011, Georgiou and Baum, 2010, Warner et al., 2010, Wang et al., 2009, Warner and Longmore, 2009, Chia et al., 2008, Harris and Tepass, 2008, Horne-Badovinac and Bilder, 2008, Lin, 2008, Seppa et al., 2008, Yamashita and Fuller, 2008, Leibfried et al., 2007, Horne-Badovinac and Bilder, 2006, Humbert et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Harris et al., 2005, Sanchez-Soriano et al., 2005, Hughes et al., 2004, Huynh and St. Johnston, 2004, Izumi et al., 2004, Polesello and Payre, 2004, Rodriguez-Boulan et al., 2004, Gibson and Perrimon, 2003, Henrique and Schweisguth, 2003, Hidalgo and ffrench-Constant, 2003, Hughes et al., 2003, Hughes et al., 2003, Knoblich et al., 2003, Nelson, 2003, Rolls et al., 2003)
dmPar-6
Name Synonyms
Secondary FlyBase IDs
    Datasets (8)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    Study result (8)
    Result
    Result Type
    Title
    Clustering analysis of hemocytes from non-infested third instar larvae
    Clustering analysis of hemocytes from wasp-infested third instar larvae
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 72 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of lymph gland cells from wasp-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 96 h after egg-laying
    Clustering analysis of circulating hemocytes from non-infested larvae at 120 h after egg-laying
    References (341)