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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\NPF
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
neuropeptide F
Annotation Symbol
CG10342
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0027109
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
neuropeptide F (NPF) encodes a 36-residue amidated peptide that signals through its receptor NPFR activating an inhibitory G-protein. Major functions of NPF signaling include the regulation of feeding and courtship behavior, metabolism, alcohol sensitivity, aggression as well as learning and memory. It further plays a role in the regulation of circadian behavior, in particular by modifying evening activity and free-running period. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

dNPF, Drm-NPF, Dm-NPF

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:16,609,220..16,611,325 [+]
Recombination map
3-59
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:16609220..16611325
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (18 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Biological Process (14 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in circadian behavior
inferred from direct assay
involved_in circadian rhythm
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in locomotor rhythm
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
involved_in olfactory behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in social behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the NPY family. (Q9VET0)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Snapshot
    neuropeptide F (NPF) encodes a 36-residue amidated peptide that signals through its receptor NPFR activating an inhibitory G-protein. Major functions of NPF signaling include the regulation of feeding and courtship behavior, metabolism, alcohol sensitivity, aggression as well as learning and memory. It further plays a role in the regulation of circadian behavior, in particular by modifying evening activity and free-running period. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    NEUROPEPTIDES -
    Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Integral part of the sensory system that mediates food signaling, providing the neural basis for the regulation of food response; coordinates larval foraging and social behavior changes during development. Required in dopaminergic (DA) neurons that innervate the mushroom body for satiety to suppress appetitive memory performance; a key factor in the internal state of hunger in the brain. NPF neurons coordinately modulate diverse sensory and motor neurons important for feeding, flight, and locomotion. NPF/NPFR pathway exerts its suppressive effect on larval aversion to diverse stressful stimuli (chemical stress and noxious heat) through attenuation of TRP channel-induced neuronal excitation. NPF neural signaling system plays a physiological role in acute modulation of alcohol sensitivity in adults, rather than a general response to intoxication by sedative agents. Activation and inhibition of the NPF system reduces and enhances ethanol preference, respectively. Sexual experience, the NPF system activity and ethanol consumption are all linked; sexual deprivation is a major contributor to enhanced ethanol preference.
    (UniProt, Q9VET0)
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    peptide hormone - developmentally programmed to modify foraging and social behavior in Drosophila larvae

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    3
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\NPF for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.45

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0083328
    569
    102
    FBtr0331685
    518
    102
    FBtr0331686
    579
    102
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0082778
    11.5
    102
    7.92
    FBpp0304074
    11.5
    102
    7.92
    FBpp0304075
    11.5
    102
    7.92
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

    102 aa isoforms: NPF-PA, NPF-PB, NPF-PC
    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\NPF using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    RT-PCR
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    adult fat body

    Comment: slightly cyclical, peak ZT20

    Additional Descriptive Data
    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    NPF is expressed in 7 tachykinin neurons in the anterior ventrolateral protocerebrum labelled by Scer\GAL4Tk

    NPF protein labels some of the clock neurons, including, in males, three LNd neurons, three or four l-LNv neurons (weaker signal) and the Pdf negative s-LNV neuron. Females express NPF protein in one less LNd and l-LNv neurons on average than males. Labelling was strongly detected in other non-clock cells in the central and lateral brain, including in the fan-shaped body. The expression pattern is similar to that of Scer\GAL4NPF.1, except that varicosities and axon terminals are more strongly stained with NPF protein.

    NPF protein is detected in a dorsal and ventral layers of the fan-shaped body.

    NPF protein is detected in neurons whose cell bodies are in the subesophageal ganglion. These neurons are not labelled by Scer\GAL4NPF.1. NPF protein is also detected in the dorsal and lateral protocerebrum, and fan-shaped body.

    Marker for
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    (assigned by UniProt )
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    Reporter: P{NPF-GAL4.1}
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{NPF-GAL4.4.5}
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Reporter: P{NPF-GAL4.U}
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\NPF in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 13 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of NPF
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of NPF
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 1 )
    Inferred from experimentation ( 1 )
    Gene disrupted in
    Inferred from location ( 0 )
    Phenotypes
    For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
    Lethality
    Allele
    Other Phenotypes
    Allele
    Phenotype manifest in
    Allele
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190JUG )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150HQV )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0N3K )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Bombyx mori
    Silkmoth
    Pediculus humanus
    Human body louse
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map
    3-59
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:16,609,220..16,611,325 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    89D5-89D5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}CSN5L4032 and P{EP}MESK4EP1015
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (12)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (5)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: npf NPF

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      Larvae deficient in npf signaling precociously show the phenotypes of food aversion and social behaviours normally shown by older nonfeeding larvae.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 30 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (19)
      Reported As
      Symbol Synonym
      NPF
      (Ma et al., 2021, Shafer and Keene, 2021, Gao et al., 2020, Hung et al., 2020, Kannangara et al., 2020, Koyama et al., 2020, Lathen et al., 2020, Nässel and Zandawala, 2020, Toprak et al., 2020, Williams et al., 2020, Zhou et al., 2020, Bozler et al., 2019, Deng et al., 2019, Engel et al., 2019, Gu et al., 2019, Hegazi et al., 2019, Kozlov and Nagoshi, 2019, Li et al., 2019, Lin et al., 2019, Rao and Deng, 2019.10.23, Zhang et al., 2019, Ameku et al., 2018, Diesner et al., 2018, Gáliková and Klepsatel, 2018, Grabowska et al., 2018, Helfrich-Förster, 2018, Lowenstein and Velazquez-Ulloa, 2018, Nässel, 2018, Obniski et al., 2018, Pu et al., 2018, Ryvkin et al., 2018, Sayin et al., 2018, Top and Young, 2018, Asahina, 2017, Kim et al., 2017, Lee et al., 2017, Liang et al., 2017, Park et al., 2017, Schoofs et al., 2017, Tomita et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Chen et al., 2016, Slade and Staveley, 2016, Beckwith and Ceriani, 2015, Grotewiel and Bettinger, 2015, Landayan and Wolf, 2015, Shankar et al., 2015, Amcheslavsky et al., 2014, Song et al., 2014, Veenstra and Ida, 2014, Erion and Sehgal, 2013, Itskov and Ribeiro, 2013, Nässel et al., 2013, Perry and Barron, 2013, Rajan and Perrimon, 2013, Shang et al., 2013, Wang et al., 2013, Bendena et al., 2012, Chintapalli et al., 2012, Hermann et al., 2012, Herrero, 2012, Kaun et al., 2012, Marella et al., 2012, Morozova et al., 2012, Shohat-Ophir et al., 2012, Zwarts et al., 2012, Kahsai and Winther, 2011, Nässel and Wegener, 2011, Nässel and Winther, 2010, Xu et al., 2010, Johard et al., 2009, Rieger et al., 2009, Veenstra, 2009, Park et al., 2008, Veenstra et al., 2008, Xu et al., 2008, Yoshii et al., 2008, Johnson et al., 2005, Wu et al., 2005, Wu et al., 2005, Johnson et al., 2003)
      Secondary FlyBase IDs
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (185)