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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PCB
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Pyruvate carboxylase
Annotation Symbol
CG1516
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0027580
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Pyruvate carboxylase (6.4.1.1)
Gene Summary
Pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) encodes an enzyme that regulates D-serine levels. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-12] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

PC, BcDNA:GH06348

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:9,850,703..9,861,543 [-]
Recombination map
2-61
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:9850703..9861543
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR005930
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011761
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001821692
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in gluconeogenesis
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001821692
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001821692
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P52873
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in mitochondrion
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001821692
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + pyruvate + HCO(3)(-) = ADP + phosphate + oxaloacetate (6.4.1.1)
Predictions / Assertions
ATP + pyruvate + HCO(3)(-) = ADP + phosphate + oxaloacetate (6.4.1.1)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) encodes an enzyme that regulates D-serine levels. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-12]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PYRUVATE CARBOXYLASES -
Pyruvate carboxylases catalyze the joining of a carboxyl group to pyruvate to form oxaloacetate, thereby replenishing oxaloacetate withdrawn from the tricarboxylic acid (TCA/Krebs) cycle for various pivotal biochemical pathways. (Adapted from PMID:18613815.)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
10
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\PCB for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0088457
4398
1181
FBtr0088459
4143
1181
FBtr0088456
4276
1181
FBtr0088455
4101
1181
FBtr0088462
4208
1181
FBtr0088454
4149
1197
FBtr0088458
4446
1197
FBtr0088460
4191
1197
FBtr0088461
4256
1197
FBtr0300850
4374
1197
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087542
130.9
1181
6.80
FBpp0087544
130.9
1181
6.80
FBpp0087541
130.9
1181
6.80
FBpp0087540
130.9
1181
6.80
FBpp0087547
130.9
1181
6.80
FBpp0087539
132.7
1197
6.61
FBpp0087543
132.7
1197
6.61
FBpp0087545
132.7
1197
6.61
FBpp0087546
132.7
1197
6.61
FBpp0290074
132.7
1197
6.61
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1181 aa isoforms: PCB-PA, PCB-PB, PCB-PD, PCB-PE, PCB-PG
1197 aa isoforms: PCB-PI, PCB-PJ, PCB-PK, PCB-PL, PCB-PM
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PCB using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in mitochondrion
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PCB in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 14 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of PCB
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of PCB
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 0 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
1  
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (3)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (3)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
5 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (4)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190160 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500M8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00LW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00KN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00X2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-61
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:9,850,703..9,861,543 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    46B4-46B4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}l(2)k05420k05420 and P{lacW}l(2)k07803k07803&P{lacW}l(2)k08816k08816
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (10)
    Genomic Clones (19)
    cDNA Clones (134)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: PCB CG1516

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: BcDNA:GH06348 CG1516

      Additional comments

      FlyBase curator comment: Used 'PCB' rather than the published 'PC' symbol for CG1516 as 'Pc' is an established symbol for the 'Polycomb' gene (FBgn0003042) in FlyBase.

      Other Comments
      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology
      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 98 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (12)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (84)