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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\msps
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
mini spindles
Annotation Symbol
CG5000
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0027948
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

XMAP215, Dis1, TOG

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:16,050,801..16,060,675 [+]
Recombination map

3-58

RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:16050801..16060675
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (25 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:tacc; FB:FBgn0026620
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (13 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000288762
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the TOG/XMAP215 family. (Q9VEZ3)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MICROTUBULE PLUS END POLYMERASES -
Microtubule plus end polymerases catalyse the transfer of tubulin dimers to the plus end of a microtubule.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Binds to the plus end of microtubules and regulates microtubule dynamics and microtubule organization. Promotes cytoplasmic microtubule nucleation and elongation. May act as a microtubule antipause factor that rapidly catalyzes the transition from pause to either growth or shrinkage. Involved in mitotic spindle elongation. Involved in the establishment of cell polarity and mitotic spindle orientation in neuroblasts. Required for maintaining the bipolarity of acentrosomal meiotic spindles; the function is dependent on tacc and involves ncd. Involved in oocyte microtubule cytoskeleton organization and bicoid mRNA localization. Seems to be involved in elongation of kinetochore-derived microtubule fibers.
(UniProt, Q9VEZ3)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

microtubule plus end binding protein - stimulates microtubule growth, microtubule destabilising activity, mitotic spindle

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
5
Number of Unique Polypeptides
4

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\msps for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0301479
7455
2050
FBtr0301480
7431
2042
FBtr0304801
7551
2082
FBtr0304802
7527
2074
FBtr0304803
7118
2050
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0290694
226.8
2050
8.27
FBpp0290695
226.0
2042
8.21
FBpp0293341
230.4
2082
8.39
FBpp0293342
229.5
2074
8.33
FBpp0293343
226.8
2050
8.27
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

2050 aa isoforms: msps-PB, msps-PF
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with tacc, dgt6.

(UniProt, Q9VEZ3)
Domain

The TOG (tumor overexpressed gene) domains are arranged in a N-terminal pentameric array with each domain composed of six (for the most part non-canonical) HEAT repeats forming a oblong paddle-like structure. Intra-HEAT loops are positioned along a face of the TOG domain and bind to a single alpha/beta-tubulin heterodimer. The TOG domains in the array seem to be structurally and functionally polarized. Differential functions may range from microtubule (MT) lattice binding and/or free tubulin heterodimer binding to potentiating stable incorporation of tubulin into the MT lattice. TOG 1-2 show strong and TOG 3-4 weak tubulin binding; TOG 1-5 are required for full ability to promote MT polymerization.

(UniProt, Q9VEZ3)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\msps using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

antennal anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

dorsal head epidermis anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

visual anlage in statu nascendi

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage in statu nascendi

antennal anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

central brain anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

dorsal head epidermis anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

visual anlage

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm anlage

antennal primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

central brain primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

visual primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

dorsal head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

lateral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

ventral head epidermis primordium

Comment: reported as procephalic ectoderm primordium

Additional Descriptive Data

msps is expressed throughout oogenesis, in both germ cells and follicle cells. In young egg chambers, msps mRNA accumulates in oocytes. At oogenesis stages 8-9, msps mRNA is localized to the anterior cell cortes in oocytes. Expression increases at stage 10, and mRNA is evenly distributed in late-stage (stage 12-14) oocytes.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\msps in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 15 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 10 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of msps
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of msps
Deletions and Duplications ( 1 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
adult cuticle & abdomen
cytoplasmic microtubule & embryonic/larval hemocyte
follicle cell & microtubule (with mspsMJ208)
follicle cell & microtubule (with mspsP)
microtubule & nurse cell | oogenesis stage S8 (with mspsMJ208)
microtubule & nurse cell | oogenesis stage S8 (with mspsP)
microtubule & nurse cell | oogenesis stage S9 (with mspsMJ208)
microtubule & nurse cell | oogenesis stage S9 (with mspsP)
microtubule & nurse cell | oogenesis stage S10B (with mspsMJ208)
microtubule & nurse cell | oogenesis stage S10B (with mspsP)
microtubule & oocyte | oogenesis stage S10B (with mspsMJ208)
microtubule & oocyte | oogenesis stage S10B (with mspsP)
mitotic anaphase & nuclear chromosome
mitotic cell cycle & spindle
nurse cell & microtubule (with mspsMJ208)
nurse cell & microtubule (with mspsP)
oocyte & microtubule (with mspsMJ208)
oocyte & microtubule (with mspsP)
oocyte & spindle
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
11 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (3)
9 of 15
Yes
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
7 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
4 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900CJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500HQ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W02CJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0216 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00YR )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Interacts with tacc, dgt6.
    (UniProt, Q9VEZ3 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3R
    Recombination map

    3-58

    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    3R:16,050,801..16,060,675 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    89B1-89B2
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}blp01618 and P{PZ}gish04895&P{EP}EP3171
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    89B-89B
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (7)
    Genomic Clones (25)
    cDNA Clones (78)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: msps anon-WO0140519.136

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of msps anon-WO0140519.136 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Other Comments

    S2 cells treated with RNAi against msps show reduced poleward flux rates of tubulin subunits in mitotic spindles and sharply decreased α-tubulin turnover at the microtubule plus and minus ends of the spindles. There is a significantly increased scatter of chromosomes throughout the spindle in the RNAi treated cells compared to controls. Pole-to-pole spindle lengths are significantly reduced in the RNAi treated cells compared to controls.

    RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in aberrantly short spindles when assayed in S2 cells. This phenotype can be observed when the screen is performed with or without Cdc27 dsRNA.

    S2 cells transfected with dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene show shortening of the metaphase spindle.

    msps is required during oogenesis for the normal structure and function of cytoplasmic microtubules.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    sub mutants do not interact with alleles of γTub37C, αTub67C, msps, tacc or wisp.

    msps is required for the integrity of the mitotic spindle.

    Mutation in msps disrupts the integrity of the mitotic spindle, resulting in the formation of one or more small additional spindles in diploid cells.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 60 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-WO0140519.136
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0044745
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (146)