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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Hug
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Hugin
Annotation Symbol
CG6371
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0028374
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Probably has a role in larval molting. (UniProt, Q9VG55)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

Drm-PK-2, hug-γ, pyrokinin-2, hugγ, hug γ

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
3R:12,526,188..12,529,076 [+]
Recombination map
3-52
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:12526188..12529076
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (10 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:ETH; FB:FBgn0028738
non-traceable author statement
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:ETH; FB:FBgn0028738
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the pyrokinin family. (Q9VG55)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Gene Group (FlyBase)
    NEUROPEPTIDES -
    Neuropeptides are secreted into the extracellular space where they interact with cell surface receptors (usually G protein coupled receptors). They are extremely diverse, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, hormones or growth factors. (Adapted from FBrf0211443 and PMID:27813667).
    Protein Function (UniProtKB)
    Probably has a role in larval molting.
    (UniProt, Q9VG55)
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    controls growth and metabolism - encodes at least two distinct neuropeptides; one, hug-γ, has homology to an ecdysone triggering hormone and a second, Drm-PK-2, is a pyrokinin with myostimulatory activity

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    1
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Hug for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.39

    Gene model reviewed during 5.50

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0082639
    1033
    191
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0082108
    20.6
    191
    8.47
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)
    Comments

    Small Hug-derived neuropeptides identified by 2D capillary LC/ESI-MS/MS: SVPFKPRL-amide.

    Small Hug-derived neuropeptides identified by LC-MS/MS: SVPFKPRL-amide

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Hug using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    organism

    Comment: maternally deposited

    Additional Descriptive Data

    There are 20 cells of the hugin cluster which consist of four classes, whose cell bodies are arranged fairly symmetrically straddling the midline: eight project to the protocerebrum and four each project to the ventral nerve cord, the ring gland, and the anterior pharynx.

    hug is expressed in approximately 20 cells of the subesophageal ganglion.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    hug is expressed in the peptidergic CC-MS 1 neurons in the larval brain.

    Immunolocalization of an antibody to the lepidopteran neuropeptide PBAN, which is orthologous to Hug, is colocalized with the expression of the reporter Avic\GFPYFP.Hug.PM.

    Marker for
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    inferred from direct assay
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\Hug in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 7 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Hug
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Hug
    Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 2 )
    Inferred from experimentation ( 2 )
    Gene disrupted in
    Gene partially disrupted in
    Inferred from location ( 0 )
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190I10 )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150E2R )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      esyN Network Key:
      Suppression
      Enhancement

      Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      3R
      Recombination map
      3-52
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      3R:12,526,188..12,529,076 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      87B15-87B15
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}svp07842 and P{lacW}Vha55j2E9
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      87C1-87C4
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Location
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (11)
      Genomic Clones (16)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (69)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         

        polyclonal

        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of

        Source for identity of: Hug hug

        Source for database merge of

        Source for merge of: hug CG6371

        Additional comments

        Source for merge of hug CG6371 was sequence comparison ( date:000423 ).

        Other Comments

        hug has coding capacity for at least two neuropeptides: Drm-PK-2 and hugγ.

        hug codes for neuropeptides with myostimulatory and ecdysis modifying effects.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 28 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (31)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        pyrokinin/PBAN-like
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0038062
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (106)