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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Mt2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Methyltransferase 2
Annotation Symbol
CG10692
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0028707
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase (2.1.1.37)
Gene Summary
Methyltransferase 2 (Mt2) encodes a (cytosine-5) tRNA methyltransferase. The modification protects tRNAs against endonucleolytic cleavage and contributes to stress resistance, protein translation and small RNA-mediated gene regulation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Dnmt2, dDnmt2, DNMT, DNA methyltransferase 2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:12,096,525..12,097,687 [+]
Recombination map
2-46
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:12096525..12097687
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (21 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables RNA binding
inferred from mutant phenotype
enables tRNA binding
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:1274787
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in DNA methylation
inferred from direct assay
involved_in gene silencing
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in response to heat
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in DNA methylation
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with MGI:MGI:1274787
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in nuclear matrix
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
NOT located_in nucleolus
inferred from direct assay
NOT part_of nucleosome
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (2.1.1.37)
Predictions / Assertions
S-adenosyl-L-methionine + DNA = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + DNA containing 5-methylcytosine (2.1.1.37)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Methyltransferase 2 (Mt2) encodes a (cytosine-5) tRNA methyltransferase. The modification protects tRNAs against endonucleolytic cleavage and contributes to stress resistance, protein translation and small RNA-mediated gene regulation. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
DNA METHYLTRANSFERASES -
DNA methyltransferases catalyze the transfer of methyl group to a DNA molecule.
TRNA METHYLTRANSFERASES -
tRNA methyltransferases catalyze the transfer of methyl group from methyl donor to a nucleoside residue in an tRNA molecule.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Mt2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.43

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0110911
1114
345
FBtr0342603
1089
345
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.2 (northern blot)

1.65 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0110211
39.4
345
6.60
FBpp0309545
39.4
345
6.60
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

345 aa isoforms: Mt2-PC, Mt2-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Mt2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The spliced transcript isoform of Mt2 represents the major species. A minor unspliced transcript isoform is also detected by RT-PCR, particularly in testes.

Mt2 transcripts are observed in embryos and adult females. The female transcripts are retricted to the ovaries.

Mt2 transcripts are most abundant in larvae, are expressed weakly in embryos, and are not detected in adults.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
co-fractionation
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Mt2 protein is enriched in cytoplasmic fractions, but purified nuclei contain significant amounts as well. Nuclear Mt2 protein is present in the insoluble nuclear matrix fraction.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in nuclear matrix
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
NOT located_in nucleolus
inferred from direct assay
NOT part_of nucleosome
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Mt2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 7 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 17 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Mt2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Mt2
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 1 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 1 )
Gene disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
8 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190ASX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915099B )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0A8U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0A4V )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0FXV )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-46
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:12,096,525..12,097,687 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    33C4-33C4
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}JhI-21EP1187 and P{lacW}Aats-thrk04203
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (7)
    Genomic Clones (12)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (4)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
        Other clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of

        Source for merge of: Dnmt Mt2

        Additional comments

        Source for merge of Dnmt Mt2 was sequence comparison ( date:010313 ).

        Other Comments

        Overexpression of Dnmt2 results in an increase in genomic DNA methylation.

        Several aspects of the organisation of the divergently transcribed, coordinately expressed Dnmt2 and CG6712 open reading frames suggest that they are components of a transposon-like element (although each of the two open reading frames appears to be encoded by a single copy locus in the genome at 33C--33D). Dnmt2 and CG6712 are tightly linked and neither open reading frame is interrupted by introns. There is a 12bp inverted repeat close to the 3' ends of both the open reading frames. Sequences homologous to Dnmt2 are present in a limited distribution of Drosophila species. Overall orientation not stated: Dnmt2- CG6712+

        Identification: on basis of sequence similarity to mammalian dnmt2 and yeast pmt1.

        Potentially encodes a cytosine DNA methyltransferase although bacterially expressed Dnmt2 is catalytically inactive in vitro.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 45 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        MARRVEL_MODEL
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (16)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        Dnmt
        nmt2
        Name Synonyms
        DNA methyltransferase 2
        DNA(5-cytosine) methyltransferase
        Methyltransferase 2
        cytosine-5 methyltransferase
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0029313
        Datasets (2)
        Study focus (2)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        • allele_used
        Genome-wide localization of chromosomal proteins in fly tissues by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
        • allele_used
        Genome-wide localization of histones and their modifications in fly tissues by ChIP-chip and ChIP-Seq.
        References (94)