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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\PGRP-LE
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LE
Annotation Symbol
CG8995
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0030695
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LE (PGRP-LE) encodes an intracellular protein that interacts with DAP-type peptidoglycan to activate the immune deficiency pathway, notably in the midgut. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

PGRP

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-52
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:15801153..15803880
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (16 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:pirk; FB:FBgn0034647
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with FLYBASE:PGRP-SC1b; FB:FBgn0033327
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR006619
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (10 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ClC-b; FB:FBgn0033755
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from key residues
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase 2 family. (Q9VXN9)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Peptidoglycan recognition protein LE (PGRP-LE) encodes an intracellular protein that interacts with DAP-type peptidoglycan to activate the immune deficiency pathway, notably in the midgut. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-14]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
LONG PEPTIDOGLYCAN RECOGNITION PROTEINS -
Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are pattern recognition molecules of the innate immune response that bind peptidoglycans. Insect PGRPs can be divided into two groups based on transcript size: short PGRPs (PGRP-S) and long PGRPs (PGRP-L). PGRP-L can be intracellular, extracellular, and transmembrane proteins. (Adapted from FBrf0223078).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Imd Signaling Pathway Core Components -
The immune deficiency (Imd) pathway primarily mediates the humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Activation of the Imd pathway by diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the release of the NFκB-like factor Rel from auto-inhibition and its translocation into the nucleus to activate the transcription of antimicrobial peptides. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Peptidoglycan-recognition protein that plays a key role in innate immunity by binding to murein peptidoglycans (PGN) of Gram-negative bacteria and activating the imd/Relish pathway. Has no activity against on Gram-positive bacteria. Binds to diaminopimelic acid-type PGN (DAP-type PGN), an activator of the imd/Relish pathway. Functions synergistically with PGRP-LC in producing resistance to E.coli and B.megaterium infections, which have the DAP-type peptidoglycan. Acts both upstream and in parallel with PGRP-LC in the imd/Relish pathway, and is required for infection-dependent activation of melanization. Required for Relish processing and nuclear translocation following proteolytic cleavage. Its localization suggests a role in the recognition and subsequent activation of the signaling at the first point of contact with invading bacteria.
(UniProt, Q9VXN9)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\PGRP-LE for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.43

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074183
1398
345
FBtr0307978
2073
345
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0073968
39.4
345
4.79
FBpp0300347
39.4
345
4.79
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

345 aa isoforms: PGRP-LE-PA, PGRP-LE-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Monomer. Peptidoglycan binding induces oligomerization.

(UniProt, Q9VXN9)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\PGRP-LE using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\PGRP-LE in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 2 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 8 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of PGRP-LE
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of PGRP-LE
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 1 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
No
1  
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (4)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
6 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
Yes
No
4 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
6 of 12
Yes
No
4 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (3)
6 of 15
Yes
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
1 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AX2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091506PI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06UI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0997 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0O6Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (13)
6 of 10
6 of 10
5 of 10
5 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Monomer. Peptidoglycan binding induces oligomerization.
    (UniProt, Q9VXN9 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Imd Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    The immune deficiency (Imd) pathway primarily mediates the humoral immune response to Gram-negative bacteria. Activation of the Imd pathway by diaminopimelic acid-type peptidoglycan initiates a signaling cascade that ultimately results in the release of the NFκB-like factor Rel from auto-inhibition and its translocation into the nucleus to activate the transcription of antimicrobial peptides. (Adapted from FBrf0224587 and FBrf0238555.)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-52
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    13F1-13F1
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1489 and P{EP}BEST:RE35685EP1581&P{EP}sdEP1088
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (6)
    Genomic Clones (17)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (10)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: CG8995 PGRP-LE

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: PGRP-LE anon-WO0153538.66

    Additional comments

    "l(1)G0414" may affect "PGRP-LE".

    Source for identity of CG8995 PGRP-LE was sequence comparison ( date:001123 ).

    Source for merge of PGRP-LE anon-WO0153538.66 was sequence comparison ( date:051113 ).

    Other Comments
    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (10)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    PGRP-LE
    (Ferguson et al., 2021, Mishra et al., 2021, Rosendo Machado et al., 2021, Sciambra and Chtarbanova, 2021, Wagner et al., 2021, Benoit et al., 2020, Lesperance and Broderick, 2020, Lu et al., 2020, Masuzzo et al., 2020, Nishihara, 2020, Ozakman and Eleftherianos, 2020, Ramond et al., 2020, Shaposhnikov et al., 2020, Watnick and Jugder, 2020, Zugasti et al., 2020, Chmiel et al., 2019, Harsh et al., 2019, Hudson et al., 2019, Molaei et al., 2019, Aranha and Vasconcelos, 2018, Charroux et al., 2018, Garschall and Flatt, 2018, Goto et al., 2018, Kamareddine et al., 2018, Kuo et al., 2018, Min and Tatar, 2018, Nazario-Toole et al., 2018, Palmer et al., 2018, Shahrestani et al., 2018, Shibata and Kawabata, 2018, Wang et al., 2018, Zhai et al., 2018, Capo et al., 2017, Early et al., 2017, Gupta et al., 2017, Hu et al., 2017.6.13, Keita et al., 2017, Kenmoku et al., 2017, Kleino et al., 2017, Kurz et al., 2017, Liu and Jin, 2017, Paik et al., 2017, Tavignot et al., 2017, Bonfini et al., 2016, Broderick, 2016, Capo et al., 2016, Costechareyre et al., 2016, Maistrenko et al., 2016, Mistry et al., 2016, Morris et al., 2016, Shiratsuchi et al., 2016, Buchon and Osman, 2015, Castillo et al., 2015, El Chamy et al., 2015, Kanoh et al., 2015, Kong et al., 2015, Momiuchi et al., 2015, Sansone et al., 2015, Stratoulias and Heino, 2015, Vlisidou and Wood, 2015, Arefin et al., 2014, Donlea et al., 2014, Imler, 2014, Keebaugh and Schlenke, 2014, Kleino and Silverman, 2014, Kurata, 2014, Lee and Lee, 2014, Lindsay and Wasserman, 2014, Mulakkal et al., 2014, Myllymäki et al., 2014, Panayidou et al., 2014, Shiratsuchi et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Buchon et al., 2013, Ferrandon, 2013, Fukuyama et al., 2013, Kingsolver et al., 2013, Kuraishi et al., 2013, Merkling and van Rij, 2013, Moy and Cherry, 2013, Schuettengruber and Cavalli, 2013, Bier and Guichard, 2012, Bosco-Drayon et al., 2012, Eleftherianos and Castillo, 2012, Igboin et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Kounatidis and Ligoxygakis, 2012, Neyen et al., 2012, Nezis, 2012, Tsuzuki et al., 2012, Vandenabeele and Bertrand, 2012, Douglas et al., 2011, Goto and Kurata, 2011.1.6, Valanne et al., 2011, Yano and Kurata, 2011, Goto et al., 2010, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2010, Kurata, 2010, Paquette et al., 2010, Cronin et al., 2009, Hill-Burns and Clark, 2009, Okado et al., 2009, Aggarwal et al., 2008, Davis et al., 2008, Goto et al., 2008, Maillet et al., 2008, Silverman et al., 2008, Wagner et al., 2008, Yano et al., 2008, Bidla et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Kurata, 2007, Libert et al., 2007, Tsichritzis et al., 2007, Wagner and Roeder, 2007, Waterhouse et al., 2007, Wu et al., 2007, Kaneko et al., 2006, Libert et al., 2006, Lim et al., 2006, Yagi and Ip, 2005, Mellroth et al., 2003, Christophides et al., 2002)
    anon-WO0153538.66
    Name Synonyms
    Peptidoglycan recognition protein LE
    Peptidoglycan recognition protein-LE
    peptidoglycan recognition protein
    peptidoglycan recognition protein-LE
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0045885
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (179)