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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\wash
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
washout
Annotation Symbol
CG13176
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0033692
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
washout (wash) encodes a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein that polymerizes branched actin through activation of the Arp2/3 complex, as well as bundles and/or crosslinks actin and microtubules. It functions as a downstream effector of the product of Rho1 in a context dependent manner. It is involved in nuclear and cytoplasmic cytoskeleton related cellular processes, including ooplasmic streaming, endosome recycing, hemocyte migration, and global nuclear organization. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

p65, p63

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:12,180,493..12,182,373 [+]
Recombination map
2-66
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:12180493..12182373
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (30 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Rho1; FB:FBgn0014020
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:Lam; FB:FBgn0002525
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:spir; FB:FBgn0003475
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR028290
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (17 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (17 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in oogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (8 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
located_in endosome
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with nuclear envelope
inferred from direct assay
located_in nuclear envelope
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
part_of WASH complex
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in early endosome
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR028290
(assigned by InterPro )
part_of WASH complex
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:A8K0Z3
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the WASH1 family. (Q7JW27)
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
washout (wash) encodes a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein that polymerizes branched actin through activation of the Arp2/3 complex, as well as bundles and/or crosslinks actin and microtubules. It functions as a downstream effector of the product of Rho1 in a context dependent manner. It is involved in nuclear and cytoplasmic cytoskeleton related cellular processes, including ooplasmic streaming, endosome recycing, hemocyte migration, and global nuclear organization. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME PROTEINS -
The Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Proteins (WASP) are a family of nucleation-promoting factors. WASP proteins share a conserved Arp2/3-complex-activating C-terminal VCA/WCA (verprolin/WASP, cofilin, acidic) domain. WASP members participate in cytoskeleton organization, notably through the stimulation of the actin-nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex. (Adapted from FBrf0230860 and FBrf0217509).
WASP AND SCAR HOMOLOG COMPLEX -
The WASP and SCAR Homologue complex (WASH-C) is a multi-subunit complex that activates Arp2/3-mediated actin nucleation. WASH-C contains the nucleation-promoting factor wash, a member of the WASP family. (Adapted from FBrf0232381 and PMID:19922875).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Acts as a nucleation-promoting factor by activating the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin polymerization (PubMed:19633175). Participates in both linear- and branched-actin networks (PubMed:19633175). Functions in linear-filament (bundled F-actin) by acting downstream of Rho1 and regulating actin and microtubule organization during oogenesis (PubMed:19633175). Nucleates actin in an Arp2/3-dependent manner and exhibits F-actin and microtubule bundling and cross-linking activity in the egg chamber (PubMed:19633175). During embryogenesis, acts downstream of Rho1 to activate the Arp2/3 complex which is necessary for the developmental migration of tail hemocytes anteriorly along the ventral midline (PubMed:25739458). Its function in hemocyte transmigration is independent of the WASH complex (PubMed:25739458). May play a role in endosomal sorting; its assembly in the WASH complex may regulate its nucleation-promoting factor (NPF) activity.
(UniProt, Q7JW27)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

cytoskeletal protein - acts upstream of Arp2/3 which in turn mediates actin nucleation activity - functions downstream of Rho1 and the formin Cappuccino to control actin and microtubule dynamics during oogenesis - bundles and crosslinks F-actin and microtubules

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\wash for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.49

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0087989
1751
499
FBtr0339595
1796
499
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0087097
53.2
499
6.10
FBpp0308667
53.2
499
6.10
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

499 aa isoforms: wash-PA, wash-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of the WASH complex (PubMed:20498093). Interacts with spir and capu (PubMed:19633175). Interacts (via N-terminus) with Rho1 (via N-terminus) (PubMed:25739458).

(UniProt, Q7JW27)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\wash using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytoplasm
located_in endosome
inferred from direct assay
colocalizes_with nuclear envelope
inferred from direct assay
located_in nuclear envelope
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in nucleus
inferred from direct assay
part_of WASH complex
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\wash in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 3 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 18 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of wash
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of wash
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 1 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 1 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
13 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091908EY )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091504TP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04OE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04L0 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0GKX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Component of the WASH complex (PubMed:20498093). Interacts with spir and capu (PubMed:19633175). Interacts (via N-terminus) with Rho1 (via N-terminus) (PubMed:25739458).
    (UniProt, Q7JW27 )
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2R
    Recombination map
    2-66
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2R:12,180,493..12,182,373 [+]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    48E6-48E6
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}SmD302833 and P{PZ}Cam03909
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (16)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (66)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: wash CG13176

      Source for database merge of
      Additional comments
      Other Comments

      Identification: as a protein found in a Trf2-containing complex.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      The gene symbol "wash" is an acronym formed from "Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein and SCAR Homolog".

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 40 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank - Monoclonal antibodies for use in research
      FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (8)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (50)