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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\slam
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
slow as molasses
Annotation Symbol
CG9506
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0043854
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Snapshot
slow as molasses (slam) encodes a protein involved in cortical polarization and furrow invagination during cellularization, as well in germ cell migration during later embryogenesis. slam RNA co-localizes and forms a complex with its encoded protein, which is needed for full expression and subcellular localization. [Date last reviewed: 2018-11-08]
Also Known As

wdo

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:6,372,388..6,377,284 [+]
Recombination map

2-19

RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:6372388..6377284
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (9 terms)
Molecular Function (0 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Biological Process (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
    -
    Summaries
    Summary (Interactive Fly)

    novel protein that is essential for polarized growth of the plasma membrane during cellularization

    Gene Model and Products
    Number of Transcripts
    2
    Number of Unique Polypeptides
    1

    Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\slam for information on other features

    To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

    Protein Domains (via Pfam)
    Isoform displayed:
    Pfam protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Protein Domains (via SMART)
    Isoform displayed:
    SMART protein domains
    InterPro name
    classification
    start
    end
    Comments on Gene Model

    Gene model reviewed during 5.51

    Gene model reviewed during 5.55

    Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
    Transcript Data
    Annotated Transcripts
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    RefSeq ID
    Length (nt)
    Assoc. CDS (aa)
    FBtr0290281
    4117
    1173
    FBtr0344864
    3704
    1173
    Additional Transcript Data and Comments
    Reported size (kB)
    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Polypeptide Data
    Annotated Polypeptides
    Name
    FlyBase ID
    Predicted MW (kDa)
    Length (aa)
    Theoretical pI
    RefSeq ID
    GenBank
    FBpp0288720
    130.6
    1173
    6.09
    FBpp0311179
    130.6
    1173
    6.09
    Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

    The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

    1173 aa isoforms: slam-PB, slam-PC
    Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
    Reported size (kDa)

    1196 (aa); 135 (kD)

    Comments
    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Linkouts
    Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
    Mapped Features

    Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\slam using the Feature Mapper tool.

    External Data
    Crossreferences
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Linkouts
    Expression Data
    Expression Summary Ribbons
    Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
    For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
    Transcript Expression
    in situ
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    RT-PCR
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    slam RNA and protein colocalize and mark the basal region of the cellularization furrow in early embryos. A 10-fold upregulation of slam transcript levels was measured at cellularization by quantitative PCR. A strong (6-fold) up-reulation of slam RNA is observed within a few minutes at the transition from mitosis 13 to interphase 14. RNA levels gradually decrease after 30 minutes during the second half of cellularization.

    slam is expressed in all somatic cells of the blastoderm embryo, but is excluded from germline cells.

    Transcript is first detected at embryonic cycle 13 and remains detectable through the slow phase of cellularization. The transcript disappears during the fast phase of cellularization and is no longer detectable at gastrulation.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Polypeptide Expression
    distribution deduced from reporter or direct label
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    immunolocalization
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    mass spectroscopy
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    western blot
    Stage
    Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
    Reference
    Additional Descriptive Data

    slam RNA and protein colocalize and mark the basal region of the cellularization furrow in early embryos. slam protein levels peak at cellularization. A strong (6-fold) up-reulation of slam protein levels is observed within a few minutes at the transition from mitosis 13 to interphase 14. Protein levels remain constant in the second half of cellularization.

    slam is expressed in all somatic cells of the blastoderm embryo, but is excluded from germline cells.

    Protein is detected in discrete puncta in the cytoplasm and is first detected in the furrow canal region on the membrane of cellularizing embryos. slam protein can also be detected on the adjacent lateral membrane but not apically.

    Marker for
     
    Subcellular Localization
    CV Term
    Evidence
    References
    Expression Deduced from Reporters
    High-Throughput Expression Data
    Associated Tools

    GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

    View Dmel\slam in GBrowse 2
    RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
    Reference
    See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
    Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
    Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
    External Data and Images
    Linkouts
    FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    Images
    Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
    Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
    For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
     
    Other relevant insertions
    Transgenic Constructs ( 13 )
    For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
    Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of slam
    Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of slam
    Deletions and Duplications ( 3 )
    Phenotypes
    Orthologs
    Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
    No records found.
    Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
    No records found.
    Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
    No records found.
    Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
    No records found.
    Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
    No records found.
    Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
    No records found.
    Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
    No records found.
    Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
    No records found.
    Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919018C )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    AAA Syntenic Ortholog
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Drosophila suzukii
    Spotted wing Drosophila
    Drosophila simulans
    Drosophila sechellia
    Drosophila erecta
    Drosophila yakuba
    Drosophila ananassae
    Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
    Drosophila persimilis
    Drosophila willistoni
    Drosophila virilis
    Drosophila mojavensis
    Drosophila grimshawi
    Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500PI )
    Organism
    Common Name
    Gene
    Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Musca domestica
    House fly
    Glossina morsitans
    Tsetse fly
    Lucilia cuprina
    Australian sheep blowfly
    Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Dipteran orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Insect Arthropod orthologies identified
    Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
    No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
    Paralogs
    Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
    Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
    No records found.
    Human Disease Associations
    FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
      Disease Model Summary Ribbon
      Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
      Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
      Human Ortholog
      Disease
      Evidence
      References
      Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
      Allele
      Disease
      Interaction
      References
      Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
      Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
      Homo sapiens (Human)
      Gene name
      Score
      OMIM
      OMIM Phenotype
      DO term
      Complementation?
      Transgene?
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      RNA-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      2L
      Recombination map

      2-19

      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      2L:6,372,388..6,377,284 [+]
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      26C4-26C4
      Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{lacW}Gef26k13720 and P{lacW}l(2)k09923k09923&P{lacW}CG9523k07502b
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (4)
      Genomic Clones (15)
       

      Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

      cDNA Clones (42)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of
        Source for database merge of

        Source for merge of: slam wdo CG9506

        Additional comments
        Other Comments

        slam is essential for cleavage furrow invagination during cellularisation. Together with nullo, slam is essential for specification of the cleavage furrow.

        slam is necessary for polarised growth of membranes during cellularisation.

        slam is required for cellularisation and for germ cell migration in the embryo.

        slam controls a key aspect of membrane trafficking in membrane invagination that takes place during embryo cellularization.

        In slam mutant embryos, the lateral transfer of apical membrane that normally takes place as new membrane is apically inserted is blocked. In addition, the Nrt protein is normally exported from the Golgi but accumulates in an apical compartment instead of being inserted into the recipient apical membrane.

        Germ cells initiate migration by moving to the interior of the embryo through the posterior midgut epithelium in slam mutant embryos, but they are unable to orient properly on the midgut and subsequently fail to proceed along the correct migratory course.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 27 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (6)
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (95)