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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\apolpp
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
apolipophorin
Annotation Symbol
CG11064
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0087002
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
apolipophorin (apolpp) encodes an apolipoprotein of the ApoB family. It is complexed with lipids to assemble the major hemolymph lipoprotein, lipophorin. Lipophorin transports neutral lipids, phospholipids and sterols between tissues. Lipophorin also carries lipophilic hormones and signaling molecules. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Rfabg, Lpp, RfaBp, lipophorin, ApoLII

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
4-0
RefSeq locus
NC_004353 REGION:1060969..1077273
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (15 terms)
Molecular Function (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
enables heme binding
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:ptc; FB:FBgn0003892
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001155829
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
involved_in lipid transport
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
apolipophorin (apolpp) encodes an apolipoprotein of the ApoB family. It is complexed with lipids to assemble the major hemolymph lipoprotein, lipophorin. Lipophorin transports neutral lipids, phospholipids and sterols between tissues. Lipophorin also carries lipophilic hormones and signaling molecules. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Constitutes the major component of lipophorin, which mediates transport for various types of lipids in hemolymph. Acts by forming lipoprotein particles that bind lipoproteins and lipids. Also involved in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like juvenile hormones, pheromone hydrocarbons and carotenoids. Required for morphogens wingless (wg) and hedgehog (hh) function, probably by acting as vehicles for the movement of wg and hh, explaining how covalently lipidated wg and hh can spread over long distances. May also be involved in transport and/or metabolism of heme.
(UniProt, Q9V496)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Lipophorin - bears lipid-linked morphogens on its surface - required for long-range signaling activity of Wingless and Hedgehog - lipophorin receptors recruit the lipoprotein Lipid Transfer Particle (LTP) to the plasma membrane to mediate lipid uptake

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\apolpp for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0089188
10287
3351
FBtr0334627
11356
3351
FBtr0345296
10338
3351
FBtr0345297
10412
3351
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0088252
372.7
3351
8.09
FBpp0306689
372.7
3351
8.09
FBpp0311463
372.7
3351
8.09
FBpp0311464
372.7
3351
8.09
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

3351 aa isoforms: apolpp-PA, apolpp-PB, apolpp-PC, apolpp-PD
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Post Translational Modification

May be modified covalently by lipidation.

Cleaved into 2 chains by furin protease. However, prevention of cleavage does not impair its function (By similarity).

(UniProt, Q9V496)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\apolpp using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

apolpp localizes to the perineurium and CNS. The protein moiety of Lpp, apolipophorin, undergoes furin dependent cleavage, generating apolipophorin I (ApoLI) and apolipophorin II (ApoLII) both of which circulate on low-density lipophorin particles in the hemolymph. Both cross the perineurium and localize to different places in the larval brain (as shown with tagged proteins).

Isolated from a pullout assay for proteins contained in clots from larval hemolymph and identified by mass spec.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\apolpp in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
FlyExpress - Embryonic expression images (BDGP data)
  • Stages(s) 11-12
  • Stages(s) 13-16
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 5 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of apolpp
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of apolpp
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 0 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (2)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3  
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
3 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (2)
1 of 13
Yes
Yes
1 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (3)
2 of 12
Yes
No
2 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (12)
4 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
3 of 15
Yes
No
3 of 15
Yes
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919002I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150060 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W0046 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X003U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (2)
6 of 10
3 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Hsap\LOC400499
4 of 15
      Functional Complementation Data
      Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
      Interactions
      Summary of Physical Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
      Select Layout:
      Legend:
      Protein
      RNA
      Selected Interactor(s)
      Interactions Browser

      Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
      protein-protein
      Physical Interaction
      Assay
      References
      Summary of Genetic Interactions
      esyN Network Diagram
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      Starting gene(s)
      Interaction type
      Interacting gene(s)
      Reference
      External Data
      Linkouts
      BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Pathways
      Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
      Metabolic Pathways
      External Data
      Linkouts
      Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
      Chromosome (arm)
      4
      Recombination map
      4-0
      Cytogenetic map
      Sequence location
      FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Evidence for location
      102F7-102F8
      Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
      Cytogenetic map
      Notes
      References
      102F-102F
      (determined by in situ hybridisation)
      Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
      Left of (cM)
      Right of (cM)
      Notes
      Stocks and Reagents
      Stocks (14)
      Genomic Clones (22)
      cDNA Clones (352)
       

      Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

      cDNA clones, fully sequenced
      BDGP DGC clones
      Other clones
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

        For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

        cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
        Other clones
        RNAi and Array Information
        Linkouts
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        Antibody Information
        Laboratory Generated Antibodies
         
        Commercially Available Antibodies
         
        Other Information
        Relationship to Other Genes
        Source for database identify of

        Source for identity of: apolpp Rfabg

        Source for database merge of

        Source for merge of: RfaBp lipophorin

        Additional comments
        Other Comments

        In vitro studies reveal RfaBp gene is transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid.

        RfaBp levels are high in retinoid replete flies, nearly zero in deprived flies and high for retinoic acid supplemented medium. This is important evidence that RfaBp expression is controlled by retinoids and other transcription activators.

        Isolated using a rat antibody from a head cDNA library.

        RfaBp encodes a retinoid- and fatty-acid binding glycoprotein that is a member of the proapolipophorin gene family. RfaBp encodes a 3351 amino acid protein. The protein is initially dispersed throughout the embryonic amnioserosa sac and later concentrates at skeletal muscle epidermis apodemeal contact junctions during larval development.

        lipophorin protein has been purified and characterised.

        There is preliminary evidence that retinoid (vitamin A) deprivation reduces RfaBp protein levels.

        Vitamin A deprivation causes a reduction in the steady state level of retinoid binding protein, RfaBp.

        Origin and Etymology
        Discoverer
        Etymology
        Identification
        External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 71 )
        Sequence Crossreferences
        NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
        GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
        GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
        RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
        UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
        Other crossreferences
        BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
        Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
        DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
        EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
        Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
        FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
        FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
        Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
        Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
        GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
        iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
        KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
        MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
        modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
        Linkouts
        BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
        DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
        DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
        FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
        FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
        Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
        MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
        Synonyms and Secondary IDs (43)
        Reported As
        Symbol Synonym
        chr4:1088013..1088173
        Name Synonyms
        Apolipophorin
        Retinoid and Fatty Acid Binding Glycoprotein
        Retinoid and fatty-acid binding protein
        Retinoid- and Fatty Acid-binding Glycoprotein
        Retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein
        Retinoid- and fatty acid-binding protein
        Retinoid- and fatty-acid binding protein
        Retinoid-fatty acid-binding glycoprotein
        apolipophorin I
        apolipophorin II
        apolipophorin-2
        retinoid and fatty acid binding protein
        retinoid- and fatty acid-binding gene
        retinoid- and fatty acid-binding glycoprotein
        retinoid-fatty acid binding protein
        Secondary FlyBase IDs
        • FBgn0016724
        • FBgn0021778
        Datasets (0)
        Study focus (0)
        Experimental Role
        Project
        Project Type
        Title
        References (164)