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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Chd1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1
Annotation Symbol
CG3733
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0250786
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1 (Chd1) encodes an ATPase involved in the remodeling and assembly of chromatin. Its biological functions include regulation of gene transcription, incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 into paternal chromatin at fertilization and regulation of intestinal immunity and microbiota. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

CHD-1, dCHD1, Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
2-8
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:2979562..2987723
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (9 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables ATP binding
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR000330, InterPro:IPR002464
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P32657
Biological Process (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in histone exchange
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in oogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the SNF2/RAD54 helicase family. (Q7KU24)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1 (Chd1) encodes an ATPase involved in the remodeling and assembly of chromatin. Its biological functions include regulation of gene transcription, incorporation of the histone variant H3.3 into paternal chromatin at fertilization and regulation of intestinal immunity and microbiota. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SNF2-LIKE CHROMATIN REMODELERS -
Snf2-like chromatin remodelers are a family of helicase-like proteins that direct energy derived from ATP hydrolysis into the mechanical remodelling of chromatin structure. They are so-called due to the presence of a domain homologous to the helicase-like ATPase domain of the S. cerevisiae Snf2 protein. This domain, the Snf2 domain, consists of two tandem RecA-like folds and contains seven conserved helicase-related sequence motifs that classify it as part of the helicase superfamily 2 (SF2). However, Snf2 proteins are not bona fide helicases, lacking the ability to separate nucleic acid strands. Instead, Snf2 proteins are DNA translocases that apply an ATP-dependent torsional strain to DNA, which provides the necessary force to remodel nucleosomes or in some cases other DNA-protein complexes. (Adapted from PMID:21862382.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling factor which functions as substrate recognition component of the transcription regulatory histone acetylation (HAT) complex SAGA. Regulates polymerase II transcription. Also required for efficient transcription by RNA polymerase I, and more specifically the polymerase I transcription termination step. Regulates negatively DNA replication. Not only involved in transcription-related chromatin remodeling, but also required to maintain a specific chromatin configuration across the genome (By similarity). Involved in assembly of active chromatin. Required for maintaining open chromatin and pluripotency in embryonic stem cells and is important for wing development and fertility. Is essential for the incorporation of histone H3.3 and assembly of paternal chromatin. Required for replication-independent nucleosome assembly in the decondensing male pronucleus.
(UniProt, Q7KU24)
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Chd1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.40

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0077674
6332
1883
FBtr0305980
6216
1900
FBtr0331654
6463
1881
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

7 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0077358
211.8
1883
6.30
FBpp0297122
213.9
1900
6.41
FBpp0304044
211.5
1881
6.26
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

1883 (aa); 200~210 (kD observed); 211 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of the SAGA complex (By similarity). Interacts with SSRP1.

(UniProt, Q7KU24)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Chd1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Chd1 transcripts are observed in late embryo and adult RNA on northern blots.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Chd1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 10 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 14 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Chd1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Chd1
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 16 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (8)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
10 of 13
Yes
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (5)
8 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (3)
10 of 12
Yes
Yes
9 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900P1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915009K )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00X3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X00B1 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00HF )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (16)
3 of 10
2 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of the SAGA complex (By similarity). Interacts with SSRP1.
(UniProt, Q7KU24 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2L
Recombination map
2-8
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
23C4-23C4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}lilli00632 and P{PZ}toc01361
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
23C-24A
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (11)
Genomic Clones (19)
cDNA Clones (29)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: Chd1 l(2)23Cd

Additional comments
Other Comments

Chd1 is required for incorporation of His3.3A protein into the male pronucleus.

Embryos lacking Chd1 function cannot incorporate His3.3A protein into the male pronucleus, rendering the paternal genome unable to participate in zygotic mitoses and leading to haploid embryos.

cDNA clones that encode the Drosophila CHD1 homologue are isolated and antibodies raised against a portion demonstrate the protein is concentrated in transcriptionally active regions of the genome.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 57 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (14)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
l(2)23Cd
Name Synonyms
Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein
Chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1
chromo-ATPase/helicase-DNA-binding domain
chromo-ATPase/helicase-DNA-binding protein 1
lethal (2) 23Cd
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0016132
  • FBgn0040118
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (95)