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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\β-Spec
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
β Spectrin
Annotation Symbol
CG5870
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0250788
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
β Spectrin (β-Spec) encodes an essential protein that interacts with the product of α-Spec to form a heterotetramer. The product of β-Spec is typically associated with the plasma membrane. It functions in a lipoprotein pathway that delivers dietary fat to the larval fat body for storage. It is also believed to function in asymmetric division of germ line stem cells via cytoplasmic structures called spectrosomes and fusomes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Spectrin, l(1)G0074, karussell, βspec, l(1)G0108

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:17,657,372..17,669,371 [+]
Recombination map
1-57
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:17657372..17669371
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (23 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR016343
(assigned by InterPro )
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR016343
(assigned by InterPro )
Biological Process (11 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in axon guidance
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in axonogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (7 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (6 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in axon
inferred from direct assay
located_in fusome
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
located_in spectrosome
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
part_of spectrin
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR016343
(assigned by InterPro )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the spectrin family. (Q00963)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
β Spectrin (β-Spec) encodes an essential protein that interacts with the product of α-Spec to form a heterotetramer. The product of β-Spec is typically associated with the plasma membrane. It functions in a lipoprotein pathway that delivers dietary fat to the larval fat body for storage. It is also believed to function in asymmetric division of germ line stem cells via cytoplasmic structures called spectrosomes and fusomes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-21]
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Spectrin is the major constituent of the cytoskeletal network underlying the erythrocyte plasma membrane. It associates with band 4.1 and actin to form the cytoskeletal superstructure of the erythrocyte plasma membrane. Interacts with calmodulin in a calcium-dependent manner.
(UniProt, Q00963)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
βSpec: beta Spectrin
Structural gene for beta spectrin; The subunit of beta spectrin associates with the subunit of alpha spectrin, forming heterodimers which associate to form tetramers, presumably the most important functional state for spectrin.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\β-Spec for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074454
7671
2291
FBtr0334404
7718
2308
FBtr0334405
7896
2147
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074228
265.7
2291
4.99
FBpp0306507
267.6
2308
4.98
FBpp0306508
249.6
2147
4.87
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

None of the polypeptides share 100% sequence identity.

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

2291 (aa); 235 (kD observed); 266 (kD predicted)

Comments

Spectrin subunits are dominated by tandemly

repeated 106-residue motifs. A higher order 848 amino acid supra-motif

composed of eight of the 106-residue motifs was observed in both α-Spec

and β-Spec.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Native spectrin molecule is a tetramer composed of two antiparallel heterodimers joined head to head so that each end of the native molecule includes the C-terminus of the alpha subunit and the N-terminus of the beta subunit.

(UniProt, Q00963)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\β-Spec using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
No Assay Recorded
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

β-Spec protein is expressed in the axon at the neuromuscular junction into a lattice-like structure.

β-Spec protein is detected in clusters of S2 cells expressing Nrg associated with the plasma membrane at points of cell-cell contact.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in axon
inferred from direct assay
located_in fusome
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
located_in spectrosome
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\β-Spec in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 33 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 19 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of β-Spec
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of β-Spec
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 4 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
microtubule cytoskeleton & axon, with Scer\GAL4sca-537.4
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (17)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
3  
11 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
6  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
10 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
3  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (14)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (13)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
5 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (20)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (5)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
3 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919005Y )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915003M )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W002U )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X0031 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G003V )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (8)
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
2 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Native spectrin molecule is a tetramer composed of two antiparallel heterodimers joined head to head so that each end of the native molecule includes the C-terminus of the alpha subunit and the N-terminus of the beta subunit.
(UniProt, Q00963 )
Linkouts
BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-57
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:17,657,372..17,669,371 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
16B10-16B12
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}bazEP1446 and P{EP}EP1464
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
16C1-16C2
(determined by in situ hybridisation) 16D1--2 (determined by in situ hybridisation)
16C1-16C2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
16D1-16D2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
16C1-16C4
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (12)
Genomic Clones (13)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (122)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: β-Spec l(1)G0198 l(1)G0074 l(1)G0108

    Source for merge of: β-Spec kus

    Source for merge of: β-Spec anon- EST:fe1B3

    Additional comments

    Source for merge of β-Spec anon- EST:fe1B3 was sequence comparison ( date:030620 ).

    Other Comments

    β-Spec is essential in neurons, but is not required in other cells for development of fertile adult males, although females lacking non-neural spectrin are sterile.

    β-Spec is required for normal axonal morphogenesis and is required to establish or maintain the normal structure of growth cones needed for precise axonal patterning.

    β-Spec is required for the efficient localisation of Ank to the postsynaptic SSR.

    β-Spec functions, with α-Spec, at the presynapse as an essential presynaptic scaffold that may link synaptic cell adhesion with the stabilization of the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton.

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    The absence of spectrins disrupts neurotransmission but does not alter postsynaptic glutamate receptor field function or the ultrastructural localization of presynaptic vesicles. The subcellular location of many synaptic proteins is affected.

    Spectrin is necessary for the capture and tethering of membrane associated proteins required for presynaptic neurotransmitter release.

    Mutations in β-Spec are lethal during late embryonic/early larval development and produce subtle defects in midgut morphology and stomach acid secretion.

    Four EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.

    Elimination of α-Spec from follicle cells does not appear to prevent the assembly of conventional β-Spec and Ank products at the lateral domain of the follicle cell plasma membrane. However α-Spec is required for the correct localization of ΒH-spectrin to the apical surface.

    The β-Spec gene product is a component of both fusomes and spectrosomes.

    The distribution of β-Spec product suggests roles in establishing an apicolateral membrane domain that is known to be rich in intercellular junctions and in establishing a unique membrane domain associated with contractile processes.

    Recombinant proteins constructs of α-Spec and β-Spec, whose primary structures correspond to the regions required for tail end interchain binding, demonstrate that interchain binding depends on multiple sites within both the nonrepetitive segments and adjacent repetitive segments of both chains.

    A β-Spec cDNA has been sequenced and the predicted amino acid sequence has been compared with a number of other spectrins.

    β-spectrin forms an elongated heterodimer with α-spectrin to form an important cytoskeletal component.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    "karussell" means "merry-go-round" in German.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 55 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    PDB - An information portal to biological macromolecular structures
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    FlyCyc Genes - Genes from a BioCyc PGDB for Dmel
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (34)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    anon-EST:fe1B3
    b spectrin
    β-spectrin
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0027278
    • FBgn0026686
    • FBgn0026676
    • FBgn0025269
    • FBgn0003471
    • FBgn0026229
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (207)