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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\drd
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
drop dead
Annotation Symbol
CG33968
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260006
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
drop dead (drd) encodes an integral membrane protein required for female fertility and for proper function of the gut and respiratory tracheae. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

lwf, beltless, lot's wife, blt, lots wife

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-49
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:15125753..15137311
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (5 terms)
Molecular Function (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Biological Process (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in oogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Cellular Component (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (0 terms)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
drop dead (drd) encodes an integral membrane protein required for female fertility and for proper function of the gut and respiratory tracheae. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
OTHER NON-AMINO-ACYL ACYL GROUP TRANSFERASES -
Other acyl groups other than amino-acyl group transferases is a collection of transferases that do not fit into any of the other major acyl groups other than amino-acyl group transferases.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
drd: drop dead (J.C. Hall)
After normal development and normal behavior of young adults, flies begin to walk in uncoordinated manner and rapidly die (all dead by approximately ten days posteclosion); before death, there are gross holes in brain; mosaic experiment suggests primary defect is in brain. Second allele (drd2) causes similar effects with rapid death of population 9-11 days post eclosion plus reduced female fertility.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
1
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\drd for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.50

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene merge based on EST/cDNA data (RE74651)

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0100009
3280
827
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0099994
93.6
827
8.74
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

There is only one protein coding transcript and one polypeptide associated with this gene

Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\drd using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
in situ RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: heads and bodies assayed separately

organism

Comment: heads and bodies assayed separately

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
pupal trachea

Comment: authors state "late (darkly pigmented)" pupa

embryonic/larval proventriculus intermediate layer

Comment: authors state "late (darkly pigmented)" pupa

crop

Comment: authors state "late (darkly pigmented)" pupa

pupal epidermis

Comment: authors state "late (darkly pigmented)" pupa

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

In third instar larvae, drd protein is expressed in the hindgut and the hindgut imaginal cells (thin arrow), but not in the midgut or the Malpighian tubules.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\drd in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of drd
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of drd
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 5 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
glial cell & adult brain
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
Hsap\LOC112268211
2 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
4 of 15
Yes
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
5 of 13
Yes
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
2 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
4 of 15
Yes
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (38)
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903K8 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915031F )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W04W6 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04SK )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( None identified )
No non-Arthropod Metazoa orthologies identified
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (19)
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
3 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Interactions Browser
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-49
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    13A-13B
    Left limit from (method unavailable) (FBrf0078834) Right limit from (method unavailable) (FBrf0078834)
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location

    1-33--57

    Left of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (7)
    Genomic Clones (11)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (99)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

      For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

      cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
      BDGP DGC clones
      RNAi and Array Information
      Linkouts
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      Antibody Information
      Laboratory Generated Antibodies
       

      monoclonal

      Commercially Available Antibodies
       
      Other Information
      Relationship to Other Genes
      Source for database identify of

      Source for identity of: BcDNA:GM06434 CG5652

      Source for identity of: beltless CG5652

      Source for database merge of

      Source for merge of: lwf CG33968

      Source for merge of: drd beltless

      Source for merge of: CG32589 CG5652

      Additional comments

      Annotations CG32589 and CG5652 merged as CG33968 in release 4.3 of the genome annotation.

      Not allelic to any of six adult-lethal (adl) genes mapping between v and f.

      Other Comments

      Mutant flies show a reduction in the transfer of ingested food from the crop to the midgut and an increased rate of crop contraction compared to controls.

      Mutations in drd result in early adult lethality and neurodegeneration.

      Mutant drd flies store significantly more food in their crops and defecate less than wild-type flies.

      Identification: In an EMS screen for mutations that confer salt sensitivity in Drosophila.

      The lwf EMS line exhibits lethality within 5 days on food containing 0.4 M NaCl. The lwf EMS line has a normal body size and external morphology.

      Embryos in which beltless function has been reduced using RNA interference display a range of cuticular defects, ranging from partially differentiated cuticle to misdirected and partially formed denticle belts, and lack of denticle belts in abdominal segments A2-A4. The embryos fail to hatch.

      The ovaries of adult females in which beltless function has been reduced using RNA interference are smaller than normal 72 hours after treatment with dsRNA, and the connections between the ovarioles are disorganised and loose. These females lay significantly fewer eggs than controls.

      Approximately 65% of beltless RNAi embryos develop cuticular abnormalities, ranging from partially differentiated cuticle to misdirected and only partially-formed denticle belts.

      New annotation (CG32589) in release 3 of the genome annotation.

      In drd mutants the temporal pattern of expression of three different molecular biomarkers is accelerated.

      The expression pattern of drd suggests the gene function is required in specific glial cell types that play a role in the maintenance of brain integrity.

      Adult mutants exhibit severe behavioural defects and brain degeneration, these manifest a few days after emergence. Mosaic analysis reveals the drd gene product is non-cell autonomous. Defective glia in the adult brain may disrupt adult nervous system function, contributing to progressive brain degeneration and death. The wild type drd gene product may prevent brain degeneration by providing a necessary glial function.

      After normal development and normal behavior of young adults, flies begin to walk in uncoordinated manner and rapidly die (all dead by approximately ten days posteclosion); before death, there are gross holes in brain; mosaic experiment suggests primary defect is in brain. Second allele (drd2) causes similar effects with rapid death of population 9-11 days post-eclosion plus reduced female fertility.

      Origin and Etymology
      Discoverer
      Etymology

      The gene is named "beltless" based on the embryonic loss of function phenotype of missing denticle belts.

      Identification
      External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 31 )
      Sequence Crossreferences
      NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
      GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
      GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
      RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
      UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
      Other crossreferences
      Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
      DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
      EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
      Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
      FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
      FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
      Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
      FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
      GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
      iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
      InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
      KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
      MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
      modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
      Linkouts
      DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
      DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
      MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
      Synonyms and Secondary IDs (13)
      Datasets (0)
      Study focus (0)
      Experimental Role
      Project
      Project Type
      Title
      References (73)