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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\elav
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
embryonic lethal abnormal vision
Annotation Symbol
CG4262
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0260400
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
embryonic lethal abnormal vision (elav) encodes the founding member of a family of prototype RNA binding proteins homologous to human Hu proteins, and acting as gene-specific regulators of many aspects of mRNA processing. Drosophila has three members in this family, elav, fne and Rbp9, which are predominantly pan-neuronal. elav has roles in axon guidance, synapse formation and photoreceptor differentiation. [Date last reviewed: 2020-08-20] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, EC7, embryonic lethal abnormal visual system, EG:65F1.2 , l(1)1Be

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:509,235..523,226 [-]
Recombination map
1-0
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:509235..523226
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (13 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
enables RNA binding
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
enables mRNA binding
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
Biological Process (6 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
(assigned by UniProt )
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in nucleus
traceable author statement
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002343
(assigned by InterPro )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the RRM elav family. (P16914)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
embryonic lethal abnormal vision (elav) encodes the founding member of a family of prototype RNA binding proteins homologous to human Hu proteins, and acting as gene-specific regulators of many aspects of mRNA processing. Drosophila has three members in this family, elav, fne and Rbp9, which are predominantly pan-neuronal. elav has roles in axon guidance, synapse formation and photoreceptor differentiation. [Date last reviewed: 2020-08-20]
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Required for the proper development and maintenance of neurons presumably by affecting RNA metabolism.
(UniProt, P16914)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
elav: embryonic lethal, abnormal vision (J. C. Hall)
Embryonic lethal, or in the case of viable and ostensibly hypomorphic alleles, displays poor jumping and flying ability plus aberrant visual physiology and behavior. No morphological abnormalities visible in sections of dying embryos (elav1, elav2, or elav3); however, whole-mount embryos show periodic interruptions in the longitudinal connectives of the CNS and missing commissures especially the posterior ones (Jimenez and Campos-Ortega). elavts1 allows survival to adult stage at 19-25 but viability is reduced and adults usually die soon after eclosion; viability after rearing at 30 is very low and newly emerged adults show poor coordination and die soon; this temperature-sensitive allele also causes morphological abnormalities in the brain, especially in the visual system (after postembryonic shift from 19 to 30 or even following all development at low-temperature); optic chiasma is abnormal and second order optic lobe (medulla) is rotated to aberrant position (Campos et al., 1985); when elavts1 raised at 30, surface of eye is rough and photoreceptor layer abnormal in sections (Campos et al., 1985). Another temperature-sensitive allele elav19 also induces abnormalities of visual system (Homyk et al., 1985); rearing at 29 or high-temperature pulses delivered to pupae, raised otherwise at 20, causes vacuolization of photoreceptors and disorganization of rhabdomeres; high-temperature rearing or pupal pulsing induces severe optic lobe defects (absence of size reduction); electroretinograms of this mutant, raised at high-temperature, are missing light-on and light-off transient spikes (also seen after low-temperature rearing) and have reduction of ERG photoreceptor potential; amplitude of this potential also deteriorates as does deep pseudopupil when adults treated at high-temperature after low-temperature rearing; mosaic analysis (Campos et al., 1985) of elav1 reveals autonomously induced defects in eye morphology, but no effects on other imaginal disc derivatives, and suggests both directly induced defects in optic lobe development, as well as inductively caused CNS defects mediated through expression of this mutation in the eye (i. e., such that the visual system's ganglia are genotypically normal). Lethal "focusing" in these mosaics suggests influence of gene on derivatives of ventral blastoderm. In studies of viable alleles, elav19 and elav20, both of which are temperature-sensitive, flying and jumping ability shown to be especially aberrant after rearing at 29; wing position also aberrant; elavts1 most severe, including having no optomotor response when raised at high (or even low) temperature; temperature-sensitive period for aberrant wing posture in elav19 extends from larval to pupal period (Homyk and Grigliatti). An antibody specific to neuronal nuclei fails to stain neurons of elav-deficient embryos; however, the quantity of antigen does not respond to the number of elav+ genes present (Bier, Ackerman, Barbel, Jan and Jan, 1988, Science 240: 913-16). elav transcripts detected in all postmitotic neurons, from their birth; not seen in embryonic or larval neuroblasts. Also seen in larval eye discs, adult retinas and Johnston's organ of the antennae.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

RNA binding protein - a pan-neural gene required for correct differentiation and maintenance of the nervous system

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\elav for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Multiple (sequential) stage-specific extensions of 3' UTRs observed during embryogenesis (FBrf0215804); all variants may not be annotated.

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Antisense UTR: 3'UTR antisense to arg on opposite strand.

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070091
2505
483
FBtr0100254
2602
479
FBtr0114366
2248
479
FBtr0307173
10506
483
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070086
50.8
483
9.40
FBpp0099643
50.3
479
9.56
FBpp0112915
50.3
479
9.56
FBpp0298002
50.8
483
9.40
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

483 aa isoforms: elav-PA, elav-PD
479 aa isoforms: elav-PB, elav-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

483 (aa); 50 (kD observed)

50 (kD observed)

483 (aa); 50 kD (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\elav using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: extended 3' UTR isoform

northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference

Comment: reference states 6-18 hr AEL

radioisotope in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

elav exhibits exclusive zygotic expression beginning at 2-4 hr after fertilization (AF). It displays sequential, phased lengthening of the 3' UTR during embryogenesis. An initial 3' UTR extension is seen at 4-6 hr, and an even longer extension appears several hours later, between 12 and 14 hr AF. The 3' UTR extension isoforms are highly enriched in nervous system tissues.

elav transcript is transiently expressed in embryonic glioblasts and dividing neuroblasts.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
eye

Comment: reference states 72 hr APF

cell body rind of adult lamina

Comment: reference states 72 hr APF

cell body rind of adult medulla

Comment: reference states 72 hr APF

lamina monopolar neuron

Comment: reference states 72 hr APF

retina

Comment: reference states 72 hr APF

mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The elav protein, which contains RNA-binding motifs, is distributed non-uniformly in the nucleus, and may be part of a larger ribonucleoprotein complex.

elav is used a marker for immature larval photorecetor cells and continues to be expressed in larval photoreceptor cells of the Bolwig organ throughout the larval stages.

Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.

staining is first visible in the R8 cells immediately posterior to the morphogenetic furrow and continues as other photoreceptors are recruited into the cluster.

The localization of elav protein in different developmental stages is consistent with its proposed neuronal housekeeping function. elav protein is first detected after stage 9 of embryogenesis, and is expressed in the CNS during stages 11 to 15. Between stages 13 and 15, elav protein begins to be expressed in the developing PNS. In third instar larvae, elav protein is found in the brain, and in the eye-antennal disc. Twelve hours post-pupariation, elav protein is found in the brain, including the optic lobe, and in the eye-antennal disc. In 72 hour pupae, elav protein continues to be expressed in the brain, including the optic lobe, in the developing eye, and in the cortex of the developing thoracic ganglion. In the adult, elav protein is expressed in the brain, eye, antennae, and the thoracic ganglion. elav protein is not found in neuroblasts, GMCs, glial cells, or in non-neuronal tissues.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
Reporter: P{elav-GAL4.AD}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{elav-GAL4.DBD}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
neuron

Comment: when combined with P{1xCRE-p65.AD}

when combined with P{3xCRE-p65.AD}

when combined with P{6xCRE-p65.AD}

when combined with P{9xCRE-p65.AD}

Reporter: P{elav-lacZ.H}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{elav-Switch.O}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{elav-VP16.AD}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{ftz-lacF}6727
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GAL4-elav.L}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GawB}elavC155
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Reporter: P{GMR27E08-GAL4}
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\elav in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 47 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 48 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of elav
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of elav
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 34 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 34 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
2  
7 of 15
Yes
No
2  
6 of 15
No
No
 
2  
6 of 15
No
No
2  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
2  
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
7 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
Yes
No
6 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (4)
7 of 13
Yes
No
7 of 13
Yes
No
7 of 13
Yes
No
6 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (4)
7 of 12
Yes
No
7 of 12
Yes
No
7 of 12
Yes
No
7 of 12
Yes
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (6)
8 of 15
Yes
No
7 of 15
No
No
7 of 15
No
No
6 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (4)
9 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (2)
3 of 15
Yes
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
1 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190AXJ )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915076S )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W06ZS )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X07KE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0G9L )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (11)
5 of 10
5 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Dmel gene
    Ortholog showing functional complementation
    Supporting References
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    RNA-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    RNA-RNA
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    X
    Recombination map
    1-0
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    X:509,235..523,226 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    1B7-1B8
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}svrEP356&P{EP}argEP452 and P{EP}DreddEP1412&P{EP}Suv4-20EP1216a
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    1B7-1B10
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    There is a discrepancy between the in situ localisation (12C) and the molecular localisation based on the flanking sequence (1B5--1B6) for the "l(1)G0031" (elavG0031) line. The available data suggests that it is most likely that the molecular localisation (1B5--1B6) is correct and that the in situs were misinterpreted.
    1B5-1B9
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    1B4-1B9
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (63)
    Genomic Clones (15)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (123)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: elav CG4262

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: elav weg

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    elav may increase splicing efficiency of ewg transcripts in alternatively spliced regions.

    Four EMS induced alleles were identified in a screen for mutations affecting commissure formation in the CNS of the embryo.

    Amino acid residues 333 to 374 in the hinge region of elav are necessary for nuclear localisation.

    elav regulates neural expression of Nrg by promoting the formation of the neural-specific alternative splice variant of Nrg.

    Two distinct temperature-sensitive alleles of elav are suppressed nonsense mutations of the same tryptophan codon.

    elav 3' UTR is essential for normal elav expression.

    A sequence comparison and numerical analysis of the RRM-containing (RNA recognition motif) proteins suggests that functionally related RRM-containing proteins have significant sequence similarities in their RRMs.

    RNA binding domain of elav is similar to that of cpo.

    Embryonic lethal, or in the case of viable and ostensibly hypomorphic alleles, displays poor jumping and flying ability plus aberrant visual physiology and behavior. No morphological abnormalities visible in sections of dying embryos (elav1, elav2, or elav3). elavts1 allows survival to adult stage at 19oC-25oC but viability is reduced and adults usually die soon after eclosion; viability after rearing at 30oC is very low and newly emerged adults show poor coordination and die soon; this temperature-sensitive allele also causes morphological abnormalities in the brain, especially in the visual system (after postembryonic shift from 19oC to 30oC or even following all development at low-temperature). In studies of viable alleles, elav19 and elav20, both of which are temperature-sensitive, flying and jumping ability shown to be especially aberrant after rearing at 29oC; wing position also aberrant; elavts1 most severe, including having no optomotor response when raised at high (or even low) temperature.

    The divergence of the gene sequences in the amino terminal region reflects lowered functional constraint, rather than species-specific functional specification.

    Dvir\elav can substitute for elav in functional tests.

    The presence of ena mutations does not compensate for the lethal effects of mutations in elav or vnd, genes important for neural development.

    Mutations of elav cause abnormalities in the electroretinogram (ERG) and/or prolonged depolarization after potential (PDA).

    RNA localisation studies demonstrate that the elav gene product provides a function which is required for the proper development and maintenance of all neurons.

    Whole-mount embryos show periodic interruptions in the longitudinal connectives of the CNS and missing commissures especially the posterior ones.

    Mosaic analysis of elav1 suggests both directly induced defects in optic lobe development, as well as inductively caused CNS defects mediated through expression of this mutation in the eye (i. e., such that the visual system's ganglia are genotypically normal). Lethal "focusing" in elav1 mosaics suggests influence of gene on derivatives of ventral blastoderm.

    elav gene function is autonomously essential in the eye, is essential for normal development of the optic lobes and not necessary in most major imaginal disc cell derivatives with the exception of the eye disc.

    Temperature-sensitive period for aberrant wing posture in elav19 extends from larval to pupal period.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    "weniger" means "less" in German.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 62 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (30)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    44C11
    ELAV
    (Dalui et al., 2020, de Oliveira Souza et al., 2019, Kremer et al., 2017, Charng et al., 2014, Gummalla et al., 2014, Lacin et al., 2014, Park et al., 2014, Rezával et al., 2014, Rogulja-Ortmann et al., 2014, Atkins et al., 2013, Bandura et al., 2013, Colombrita et al., 2013, Fujita et al., 2013, Guss et al., 2013, Melom and Littleton, 2013, Morishita et al., 2013, Schauer et al., 2013, Upadhyay et al., 2013, Yi et al., 2013, Anderson et al., 2012, Berger et al., 2012, Bolkan et al., 2012, Christiansen et al., 2012, Distefano et al., 2012, Rezaval et al., 2012, Verghese et al., 2012, Zhai et al., 2012, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2011, Colonques et al., 2011, Grice and Liu, 2011, Lieber et al., 2011, Tan et al., 2011, Ashton-Beaucage et al., 2010, Berger et al., 2010, Chioda et al., 2010, Fan et al., 2010, Kosmidis et al., 2010, Lopes and Casares, 2010, Miyazaki and Ito, 2010, Richardson and Pichaud, 2010, Robinett et al., 2010, Salzer and Kumar, 2010, Soller et al., 2010, Bossuyt et al., 2009, Jansen et al., 2009, Kato et al., 2009, Ku et al., 2009, Pickup et al., 2009, Rajan et al., 2009, Shafer and Taghert, 2009, Simon et al., 2009, Spokony and Restifo, 2009, Acar et al., 2008, Albornoz et al., 2008, Bajpe et al., 2008, Botham et al., 2008, Braid and Verheyen, 2008, Bury et al., 2008, Coiffier et al., 2008, Erclik et al., 2008, Erclik et al., 2008, Fan and Bergmann, 2008, Fiehler and Wolff, 2008, Fujii et al., 2008, Kurant et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Melicharek et al., 2008, O'Farrell and Kylsten, 2008, O'Farrell et al., 2008, Okajima et al., 2008, Pierce et al., 2008, Rezával et al., 2008, Toba and White, 2008, Venkatachalam et al., 2008, Xu et al., 2008, Beaucher et al., 2007, Harris and Beckendorf, 2007, Pellock et al., 2007, Sharma and Nirenberg, 2007, Tyler and Baker, 2007, Vanzo et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Anderson et al., 2006, Bose et al., 2006, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2006, Liao et al., 2006, Sprecher and Hirth, 2006, Sprecher et al., 2006, Willecke et al., 2006, Yang and Baker, 2006, Cyran et al., 2005, Fan et al., 2005, Iwanami et al., 2005, Loo et al., 2005, Mandal et al., 2005, Roegiers et al., 2005, Dallman et al., 2004, Loewer et al., 2004, Soller and White, 2003, Hartmann et al., 2000, Hirth and Reichert, 1999, Kaneko et al., 1997, Buckles et al., 1992)
    Elav
    (Baral et al., 2020, Keder et al., 2020, Kozlov et al., 2020, Li and Hidalgo, 2020, Neal et al., 2020, Wei et al., 2020, Sato et al., 2019, Schilling et al., 2019, Zhang et al., 2019, Duan et al., 2018, Enriquez et al., 2018, Hakes et al., 2018, Schwartz and Rhiner, 2018, Choudhury et al., 2017, Suisse et al., 2017, Jin et al., 2016, Kraft et al., 2016, Sanfilippo et al., 2016, Jiang et al., 2015, Stratoulias and Heino, 2015, Amaral et al., 2014, Eroglu et al., 2014, Fidler et al., 2014, Harumoto et al., 2014, Jeibmann et al., 2014, Kuang et al., 2014, Lai and Doe, 2014, Oliva et al., 2014, Roy and Jackson, 2014, Tanaka-Matakatsu et al., 2014, Thomas and Strutt, 2014, Zhou et al., 2014, Baek et al., 2013, Bandura et al., 2013, Carney et al., 2013, Chai et al., 2013, Coelho et al., 2013, Da Ros et al., 2013, Das et al., 2013, Diaper et al., 2013, Haase Gilbert et al., 2013, He and Noll, 2013, Jin et al., 2013, Jukam et al., 2013, Khan et al., 2013, Kim et al., 2013, Koltowska et al., 2013, Laneve et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Li et al., 2013, Lu et al., 2013, Nahm et al., 2013, Ruan et al., 2013, Shwartz et al., 2013, Sone et al., 2013, Steffensmeier et al., 2013, Steinhauer et al., 2013, Suzuki et al., 2013, Thanawala et al., 2013, Timmerman et al., 2013, Zhao et al., 2013, Zhou and Luo, 2013, Angus et al., 2012, Bateman et al., 2012, Bousquet et al., 2012, Chen and Ganetzky, 2012, Dornier et al., 2012, Fuentes-Medel et al., 2012, Giagtzoglou et al., 2012, Gistelinck et al., 2012, Kametaka et al., 2012, Kanakousaki and Gibson, 2012, Legent et al., 2012, Matzat et al., 2012, Miguel et al., 2012, Moraru et al., 2012, Mukherjee et al., 2012, Nakazawa et al., 2012, Oyallon et al., 2012, Petersen et al., 2012, Plavicki et al., 2012, Popkova et al., 2012, Ruggiero et al., 2012, Singh and Mlodzik, 2012, Song and Lu, 2012, Sun et al., 2012, Suyari et al., 2012, Wang and Sun, 2012, Weber et al., 2012, Xia et al., 2012, Yamakawa et al., 2012, Yoshiura et al., 2012, Yu et al., 2012, Zappia et al., 2012, Zarifi et al., 2012, Anderson et al., 2011, Belacortu et al., 2011, Benchabane et al., 2011, Benchabane et al., 2011, Benhra et al., 2011, Besson et al., 2011, Brockmann et al., 2011, Brumby et al., 2011, Charlton-Perkins et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2011, Cho and Fischer, 2011, Cowan et al., 2011, Datta et al., 2011, Duan et al., 2011, Endo et al., 2011, Feng et al., 2011, Freer et al., 2011, Ghosh et al., 2011, Gontang et al., 2011, Hadjieconomou et al., 2011, Hakeda-Suzuki et al., 2011, Hartl et al., 2011, Jepson et al., 2011, Jiang et al., 2011, Jiang et al., 2011, Karim and Moore, 2011, Kawamori et al., 2011, Keene et al., 2011, Kuzina et al., 2011, Ling and Salvaterra, 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Mirkovic et al., 2011, Morante et al., 2011, Neumüller et al., 2011, Nicholson et al., 2011, Pak et al., 2011, Pandey et al., 2011, Popova et al., 2011, Quijano et al., 2011, Qurashi et al., 2011, Rebeiz et al., 2011, Reddy and Irvine, 2011, San-Juán and Baonza, 2011, Singh et al., 2011, Smibert et al., 2011, Sousa-Nunes et al., 2011, Sprecher et al., 2011, Tan et al., 2011, Tare et al., 2011, Vallejo et al., 2011, Vrailas-Mortimer et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Xin et al., 2011, Xiong and Rebay, 2011, Yamasaki et al., 2011, Zhang et al., 2011, Brankatschk and Eaton, 2010, Camp et al., 2010, Cordero and Cagan, 2010, Freeman et al., 2010, Ghosh et al., 2010, Houalla et al., 2010, Kawahashi and Hayashi, 2010, Kitajima et al., 2010, Kosmidis et al., 2010, McDonald et al., 2010, Monastirioti et al., 2010, Mukhopadhyay et al., 2010, Nahm et al., 2010, Papadopoulos et al., 2010, Papadopoulos et al., 2010, Pérez et al., 2010, Repnikova et al., 2010, Roignant and Treisman, 2010, Roignant et al., 2010, Rousso et al., 2010, Salzer et al., 2010, Siegrist et al., 2010, Singh et al., 2010, Song et al., 2010, Stempfle et al., 2010, Sugie et al., 2010, Swanson et al., 2010, Tsuda et al., 2010, Xiong et al., 2010, zur Lage and Jarman, 2010, Almudi et al., 2009, Ambrus et al., 2009, Andrews et al., 2009, Baker et al., 2009, Bhattacharya and Baker, 2009, Chen et al., 2009, Chung et al., 2009, Classen et al., 2009, Courbard et al., 2009, Dienstbier et al., 2009, Dziedzic et al., 2009, Edwards and Meinertzhagen, 2009, Firth and Baker, 2009, Giagtzoglou et al., 2009, Glavic et al., 2009, Izergina et al., 2009, Jacobsson et al., 2009, Kumar et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Li et al., 2009, Mao and Freeman, 2009, Martin et al., 2009, McKay et al., 2009, Miller et al., 2009, Mummery-Widmer et al., 2009, O'Keefe et al., 2009, Peng et al., 2009, Rand et al., 2009, Read et al., 2009, Shi and Noll, 2009, Siddall et al., 2009, Steele et al., 2009, Tiwari and Roy, 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Wu et al., 2009, Zhang et al., 2009, Awasaki et al., 2008, Banerjee et al., 2008, Bello et al., 2008, Benchabane et al., 2008, Bennett et al., 2008, Boone and Doe, 2008, Bowman et al., 2008, Carrera et al., 2008, Casas-Tinto et al., 2008, Cayirlioglu et al., 2008, del Alamo and Mlodzik, 2008, Dos-Santos et al., 2008, Eun et al., 2008, Hayashi et al., 2008, Jang et al., 2008, Kandachar et al., 2008, Lee et al., 2008, Lichtneckert et al., 2008, Lin et al., 2008, Ly et al., 2008, Mao et al., 2008, McGraw et al., 2008, Miller et al., 2008, Miura et al., 2008, Morante and Desplan, 2008, Morey et al., 2008, Moyer and Jacobs, 2008, Nishimura et al., 2008, Pepple et al., 2008, Petrovic and Hummel, 2008, Remaud et al., 2008, Rimkus et al., 2008, Schuldiner et al., 2008, Sprecher and Desplan, 2008, Tichy et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Watson et al., 2008, Weber et al., 2008, Wheeler et al., 2008, Wilkin et al., 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Wu et al., 2008, Xu et al., 2008, Yasugi et al., 2008, Zhu et al., 2008, Ambrus et al., 2007, Bello et al., 2007, Bolkan et al., 2007, Buttitta et al., 2007, Curtiss et al., 2007, Ebacher et al., 2007, Escudero et al., 2007, Firth and Baker, 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Grillenzoni et al., 2007, Guenin et al., 2007, Hattori et al., 2007, Huang et al., 2007, Kracklauer et al., 2007, Kuraishi et al., 2007, Lee et al., 2007, Lichtneckert et al., 2007, Luque and Milan, 2007, Matsuno et al., 2007, Menut et al., 2007, Muñoz-Descalzo et al., 2007, Nishimura et al., 2007, Pepple et al., 2007, Pfleger et al., 2007, Ratnaparkhi and Zinn, 2007, Rawls et al., 2007, Secombe et al., 2007, Soustelle and Giangrande, 2007, Sprecher et al., 2007, Tanaka-Matakatsu et al., 2007, Tsai et al., 2007, Tseng et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007, Xie et al., 2007, Yoshioka et al., 2007, Altenhein et al., 2006, Awasaki et al., 2006, Baril and Therrien, 2006, Bayraktar et al., 2006, Bello et al., 2006, Bras-Pereira et al., 2006, Brown et al., 2006, del Alamo and Mlodzik, 2006, Ekas et al., 2006, Gallagher and Knoblich, 2006, Girard et al., 2006, Hagedorn et al., 2006, Kamikouchi et al., 2006, Karsten et al., 2006, Kim et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Lee et al., 2006, Li et al., 2006, Lim and Tomlinson, 2006, Long et al., 2006, Maitra et al., 2006, Mao et al., 2006, Mendes et al., 2006, Mirkovic and Mlodzik, 2006, Roignant et al., 2006, Sarkar et al., 2006, Silva, 2006, Singh et al., 2006, Takaesu et al., 2006, Uhlirova and Bohmann, 2006, Umetsu et al., 2006, Vrailas and Moses, 2006, Vrailas et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Zhang et al., 2006, Alone et al., 2005, Baonza and Freeman, 2005, Bray et al., 2005, Chotard et al., 2005, Jafar-Nejad et al., 2005, Lim et al., 2005, Mee et al., 2005, Merianda et al., 2005, Orgogozo and Grueber, 2005, Rogers et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2005, Zhang et al., 2005, Coulom and Birman, 2004, Komiyama et al., 2004, Li and Baker, 2004, Zeitler et al., 2004, Chen et al., 2003, Fan et al., 2003, Fanto et al., 2003, Kuniyoshi et al., 2003, Michaud and Tanguay, 2003, Morey et al., 2003, Song and Taylor, 2003, Sun et al., 2003, Cope et al., 2002, Python and Stocker, 2002, Campuzano, 2001, Cooper, 2000, Goulding et al., 2000)
    Elav-9F8A9
    elav
    (Aboukilila et al., 2020, Bravo González-Blas et al., 2020, Carrasco et al., 2020, Cho et al., 2020, Graves et al., 2020, Hassan et al., 2020, Kurmangaliyev et al., 2020, Loubiere et al., 2020, Tamberg et al., 2020, Wei et al., 2020, Brunet Avalos et al., 2019, de Oliveira Souza et al., 2019, Ariss et al., 2018, Croset et al., 2018, Davie et al., 2018, Kavaler et al., 2018, Vaufrey et al., 2018, Zhu et al., 2018, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Vallejos Baier et al., 2017, Pavlou et al., 2016, Akitake et al., 2015, Brooks et al., 2015, Doggett et al., 2015, Horan et al., 2015, Lin et al., 2015, Oktaba et al., 2015, Stoiber et al., 2015, Yalgin et al., 2015, Zaharieva et al., 2015, Anderson et al., 2014, Bussell et al., 2014, Fedotov et al., 2014, Haelterman et al., 2014, Haelterman et al., 2014.3.25, Komori et al., 2014, Lawton et al., 2014, Loubéry and González-Gaitán, 2014, Ma and Weake, 2014, Merlo et al., 2014, Olesnicky et al., 2014, Rumpf et al., 2014, Das et al., 2013, Fernández-Hernández et al., 2013, Haussmann et al., 2013, Iyer et al., 2013, Külshammer and Uhlirova, 2013, Walker et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013-, Yi et al., 2013, Beck et al., 2012, Berni et al., 2012, Bhaskar et al., 2012, Callan et al., 2012, Carney et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2012, Gistelinck et al., 2012, Hilgers et al., 2012, Japanese National Institute of Genetics, 2012.5.21, Nfonsam et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Smibert et al., 2012, Stephan et al., 2012, Stern et al., 2012, Tunstall et al., 2012, Volders et al., 2012, Weng and Cohen, 2012, Zanini et al., 2012, Chang et al., 2011, Chen et al., 2011, Datta et al., 2011, Hasegawa et al., 2011, Haussmann et al., 2011, Hilgers et al., 2011, Keene et al., 2011, Lin et al., 2011, Morikawa et al., 2011, Ouyang et al., 2011, Qurashi et al., 2011, Richards et al., 2011, Shulman et al., 2011, Stagg et al., 2011, Stephan et al., 2011, Viktorin et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Wang et al., 2011, Yu et al., 2011, Fernández-Ayala et al., 2010, Fraichard et al., 2010, Hanson et al., 2010, Haussmann and Soller, 2010, Inamdar et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Lorbeck et al., 2010, Rendic et al., 2010, Roignant et al., 2010, Tamura et al., 2010, Thomsen et al., 2010, Toba et al., 2010, Zeng et al., 2010, Benton et al., 2009, Bhuin and Roy, 2009, Choi et al., 2009, Diao et al., 2009, Häsemeyer et al., 2009, Larsen et al., 2009, Lee et al., 2009, Ng et al., 2009, Peabody et al., 2009, Pentek et al., 2009, Prakash et al., 2009, Read et al., 2009, Salzer and Kumar, 2009, Sanyal, 2009, Southall and Brand, 2009, Tamura et al., 2009, Udolph et al., 2009, von Trotha et al., 2009, Wheeler et al., 2009, Wong et al., 2009, Yang et al., 2009, Zhou et al., 2009, Zweier et al., 2009, Aigouy et al., 2008, Ben Rokia-Mille et al., 2008, Brás-Pereira and Casares, 2008, Duong et al., 2008, Font-Burgada et al., 2008, Fung et al., 2008, Haussmann et al., 2008, Hong et al., 2008, Liu et al., 2008, Mandalaywala et al., 2008, Nishimura et al., 2008, Pantazis et al., 2008, Samson, 2008, Tien et al., 2008, Toba and White, 2008, Xu et al., 2008, Yapici et al., 2008, Bader et al., 2007, Belay et al., 2007, Berger et al., 2007, Cornbrooks et al., 2007, de Velasco et al., 2007, Dietzl et al., 2007, Grieder et al., 2007, Harrisingh et al., 2007, Jinushi-Nakao et al., 2007, Kim et al., 2007, Laurençon et al., 2007, Menzel et al., 2007, Mondal et al., 2007, Mondal et al., 2007, Simionato et al., 2007, Weasner et al., 2007, Acar et al., 2006, Bartolome and Charlesworth, 2006, Charroux et al., 2006, Choe et al., 2006, Collins et al., 2006, Deschenes-Furry, 2006, Dickman, 2006, Ge et al., 2006, Herz et al., 2006, Husain et al., 2006, Jemc and Rebay, 2006, Jones et al., 2006, Kent et al., 2006, Kondo et al., 2006, Larsen et al., 2006, Meier et al., 2006, Mills et al., 2006, Shafer et al., 2006, Shigenobu et al., 2006, Slepko et al., 2006, Wang et al., 2006, Wehn and Campbell, 2006, Wheeler et al., 2006, Younossi-Hartenstein et al., 2006, Ayyub et al., 2005, Borgeson and Samson, 2005, Curtin et al., 2005, Ice et al., 2005, Jing et al., 2005, Li and Carthew, 2005, Mehta et al., 2005, Muhlig-Versen et al., 2005, Prakash et al., 2005, Rodrigues et al., 2005, Soller and White, 2005, Sugimura et al., 2004, Lei et al., 2003, Samson and Chalvet, 2003, Lee et al., 2002, Bier et al., 1989)
    fliJ
    weg
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0026157
    • FBgn0000570
    • FBgn0040177
    • FBgn0040203
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (1,336)