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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Cul3
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Cullin 3
Annotation Symbol
CG42616
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261268
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Cullen-3 homolog acting in protein degradation - loss of function has pleiotropic effects during development, including defects in external sensory organ development, pattern formation and cell growth and survival - targets Cubitus interruptus (Interactive Fly, Cul3 )
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

gft, Cul-3, guftagu, l(2)br34, l(2)35Cd

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2L:15,265,245..15,272,024 [-]
Recombination map
2-51
RefSeq locus
NT_033779 REGION:15265245..15272024
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (28 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9VFP2
(assigned by UniProt )
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9NHX0
inferred from physical interaction with UniProtKB:Q9W5E1
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002631076
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002631076
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (19 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (19 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in axonogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in locomotor rhythm
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:gcl; FB:FBgn0005695
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in sleep
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in spermatogenesis
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002631076
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred by curator from GO:0031463,GO:0031625
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:klhl10; FB:FBgn0040038
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:gcl; FB:FBgn0005695
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:kel; FB:FBgn0001301
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002631076
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CULLINS -
Cullins are an evolutionarily conserved, structurally-related gene family, with an N-terminal bearing cullin repeats followed by a cullin homology domain and a neddylation site. Cullins act as scaffolds to assemble multi-subunit Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL) complexes. A CRL complex is characterised by a cullin-RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase interaction, which acts as the catalytic core and recruits the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and a cullin-adaptor protein-substrate recognition protein interaction which links the E3 ligase to its target for ubiquitination. (Adapted from FBrf0224296).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Negative Regulators of Torso Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of Torso signaling down-regulate the pathway, suppressing the activation of ERK kinase (rl).
Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
l(2)35Cd
l(2)35Cd2, but not other alleles, fails to complement In(2LR)Scorv1.
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Cullen-3 homolog acting in protein degradation - loss of function has pleiotropic effects during development, including defects in external sensory organ development, pattern formation and cell growth and survival - targets Cubitus interruptus

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
4
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Cul3 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.43

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0302157
3037
773
FBtr0302156
4332
773
FBtr0302158
3272
773
FBtr0302159
3558
934
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0291367
89.6
773
9.09
FBpp0291366
89.6
773
9.09
FBpp0291368
89.6
773
9.09
FBpp0291369
106.9
934
9.51
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

773 aa isoforms: Cul3-PC, Cul3-PD, Cul3-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Cul3 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
testis

Comment: male-specific isoform

male germline cell

Comment: male-specific isoform

Additional Descriptive Data

One Cul3 isoform (with the downstream translation start) is detected only in male germline cells. The other isoform is detected in somatic cells.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:klhl10; FB:FBgn0040038
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:gcl; FB:FBgn0005695
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytosol
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from physical interaction with FLYBASE:kel; FB:FBgn0001301
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Cul3 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 26 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Cul3
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Cul3
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 153 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 153 )
Gene not disrupted in
Gene disrupted in
Gene partially disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
mesothoracic tergum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-4512
neuron & alpha-lobe
neuron & beta-lobe
neuron & gamma-lobe
neuron & mushroom body
scutellum & macrochaeta, with Scer\GAL4sca-4512
sensillum campaniformium & wing, with Scer\GAL4sca-4512
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (7)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (7)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (6)
13 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (11)
12 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
11 of 15
Yes
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (10)
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
7 of 9
Yes
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
Yes
2 of 9
No
No
2 of 9
No
No
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (3)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (2)
9 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919021Q )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091501NO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01NN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01JE )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G02DP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (6)
6 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Negative Regulators of Torso Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of Torso signaling down-regulate the pathway, suppressing the activation of ERK kinase (rl).
    Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
    Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    2L
    Recombination map
    2-51
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    2L:15,265,245..15,272,024 [-]
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    35C5-35C5
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}vigEP812&P{PZ}stc05441 and P{EP}esgEP633&P{PZ}esg07082
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    35D1-35D4
    (determined by in situ hybridisation)
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes

    Recombinants of gft06430 indicate that the gene order is rd l(2)35Cc gft.

    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (18)
    Genomic Clones (18)
     

    Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

    cDNA Clones (103)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of

    Source for identity of: Cul-3 cul-3

    Source for identity of: Cul3 Cul-3

    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: gft CG31829

    Additional comments

    Annotations CG11861 and CG31829 merged as CG42616 in release 5.20 of the genome annotation.

    Renamed to be consistent with FlyBase nomenclature rules.

    Other Comments

    Cul-3 is required for the circadian control of per and tim protein oscillations.

    Normal gft function requires an intact Nedd8 conjugation site.

    gft plays an essential role in both axonal arborization and proper elaboration of dendrites and may require neddylation for its proper function.

    gft mutant axons often stall around branching points, and it is possible that mutant neurites become truncated because of defects in arborization rather than extension.

    Perturbation of gft function has pleiotropic effects during development, including defects in external sensory organ development, defects patterning in the wing and notum and defects in cell growth and survival.

    New annotation (CG31829) in release 3 of the genome annotation.

    1 additional allele is discussed but is not named.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology

    Gene is named "medusa" (in Greek mythology, Medusa represents both life and death) based on the mutant phenotype that affects caspase activation.

    The gene is named "guftagu", an Urdu word that means "private conversation", because it appears that the gene product has a "private conversation" with the activated G-sα60A signalling pathway in order to modify the phenotype caused by expression of constitutively activated G-sα60A protein.

    'guftagu' means 'private conversation' in Urdu, reflecting the experimental eavesdropping (by identification of suppressive interactions) on the interaction between gft and G-sα60A.

    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 72 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    Flygut - An atlas of the Drosophila adult midgut
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    BioGRID - A database of protein and genetic interactions.
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (30)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    l(2)06430
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0001980
    • FBgn0027882
    • FBgn0051829
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (183)