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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\SdhA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Succinate dehydrogenase, subunit A (flavoprotein)
Annotation Symbol
CG17246
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261439
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Succinate dehydrogenase, subunit A (flavoprotein) (SdhA) encodes the FAD-containing subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase complex. It directly oxidizes succinate to fumarate and transfers the electrons to other subunits and eventually to quinones. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Scs-fp, sdh, Succinate dehydrogenase A, succinate dehydrogenase, Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase flavoprotein subunit

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:19,391,863..19,395,971 [-]
Recombination map
2-89
RefSeq locus
NT_033778 REGION:19391863..19395971
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (11 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180228
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180228
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180258
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P31040
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180228
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
(assigned by UniProt )
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180258
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P31040
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with UniProtKB:P31040
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR011281
(assigned by InterPro )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in mitochondrion
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000180258
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the FAD-dependent oxidoreductase 2 family. FRD/SDH subfamily. (Q94523)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
Succinate dehydrogenase, subunit A (flavoprotein) (SdhA) encodes the FAD-containing subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase complex. It directly oxidizes succinate to fumarate and transfers the electrons to other subunits and eventually to quinones. [Date last reviewed: 2019-09-26]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX II SUBUNITS -
The succinate dehydrogenase complex is unique in that it functions in both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the electron transport chain (ETC), wherein it is referred to as Complex II. It is a heterotetrameric protein complex that is anchored to the inner mitochondrial membrane by two integral membrane proteins, Sdh3 (SDHC) and Sdh4 (SDHD). This Sdh3/Sdh4 dimer binds the peripheral membrane protein Sdh2 (SDHB), which tethers the catalytic Sdh1 (SDHA) subunit to the complex. Sdh1 harbors a covalently bound FAD cofactor that is required for the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the TCA cycle. The two electrons that result from succinate oxidation are channeled through the three iron-sulfur clusters in Sdh2 to ubiquinone, which interacts with the complex via the Sdh3/Sdh4 membrane anchor, and thereby reduce it to ubiquinol as part of the ETC. (Adapted from PMID:24954416.)
SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASES -
Succinate dehydrogenases catalyze the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The reaction is performed by the Sdh1 (SDHA) subunit of the heterotetrameric succinate dehydrogenase complex, which is tethered to the inner mitochondrial membrane and also functions as Complex II within the electron transport chain. (Adapted from PMID:24954416.)
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Flavoprotein (FP) subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q). Maintaining electron transport chain function is required to prevent neurodegenerative changes seen in both early- and late-onset disorders.
(UniProt, Q94523)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
Sdh: Succinic dehydrogenase
The structural gene for succinic dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.1). Null mutations are homozygous lethal and lethal in heteroallelic combinations; however clones of homozygous cells survive and develop normally. Detected in clones by a cytochemical test for enzyme activity; cell autonomous with low perdurance; an excellent cell marker.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
3
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\SdhA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0086553
2750
661
FBtr0086552
2617
661
FBtr0086554
2663
661
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085737
72.3
661
7.12
FBpp0085736
72.3
661
7.12
FBpp0085738
72.3
661
7.12
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

661 aa isoforms: SdhA-PA, SdhA-PB, SdhA-PC
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Component of complex II composed of four subunits: a flavoprotein (FP), an iron-sulfur protein (IP), and a cytochrome b composed of a large and a small subunit.

(UniProt, Q94523)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\SdhA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
organism

Comment: maternally deposited

Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in mitochondrion
inferred from high throughput direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\SdhA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 16 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 6 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of SdhA
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of SdhA
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 0 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 0 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (1)
13 of 12
Yes
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (1)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (3)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
8 of 9
No
Yes
1 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (4)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091903UH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915025O )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01XW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X01VH )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G041Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
7 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 3 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Component of complex II composed of four subunits: a flavoprotein (FP), an iron-sulfur protein (IP), and a cytochrome b composed of a large and a small subunit.
(UniProt, Q94523 )
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
2R
Recombination map
2-89
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
2R:19,391,863..19,395,971 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
56D3-56D3
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}ena02029&P{lacW}corak08713 and P{lacW}htsk06121
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
56D1-56D2
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes

Mapping based on 199 M(2)53-bw recombinants.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (12)
Genomic Clones (19)
 
cDNA Clones (112)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of
Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: Sdh Scs-fp

Additional comments
Other Comments
Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 48 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
DPiM - Drosophila Protein interaction map
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
FLIGHT - Cell culture data for RNAi and other high-throughput technologies
InterologFinder - Protein-protein interactions (PPI) from both known and predicted PPI data sets.
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (25)
Reported As
Name Synonyms
COMPLEX II: flavoprotein subunit
SUCCINYL COENZIME A SYNTHETASE FLAVOPROTEIN SUBUNIT
Succinate dehydrogenase
Succinate dehydrogenase Flavoprotein
Succinate dehydrogenase Flavoprotein subunit
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit
Succinate dehydrogenase, subunit A (flavoprotein)
Succinyl coenzyme A synthetase flavoprotein subunit
succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein subunit
succinyl CoA synthetase flavoprotein subunit of complex II
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0003347
  • FBgn0017539
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (93)