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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\NT1
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
Neurotrophin 1
Annotation Symbol
CG42576
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261526
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
Neurotrophin which may function as a ligand for the Toll-related receptors Toll-7 and Tollo (PubMed:22022271, PubMed:23892553). Binds to Toll-7 and probably acts as its ligand in promoting motor axon targeting and neuronal survival in the central nervous system (CNS) (PubMed:23892553). Involved in synaptic targeting of ISNb/d motorneurons and also some SNa motorneurons (PubMed:19018662). In larvae, involved in the negative regulation of the tracheal immune response to bacterial infection perhaps by acting as a ligand for the Toll-related receptor Tollo (PubMed:22022271). May be involved in the normal development of specific neurons at the neuromuscular junction (PubMed:24124519). (UniProt, B7TB45)
Contribute a Gene Snapshot for this gene.
Also Known As

DNT1, Spz2, spatzle 2, Spz-2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-12
RefSeq locus
NT_037436 REGION:4501652..4508433
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (14 terms)
Molecular Function (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
enables Toll binding
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
enables Toll binding
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (9 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in axon guidance
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN002354018
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Protein Signatures (InterPro)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
SPATZLES -
The spatzles are a family of secreted proteins that share a neutrotrophin-like cystine-knot domain. Proteolytically activated, spz binds Tl and activates canonical Toll signaling in embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning and innate immunity. spz, spz5 and NT1 are more closely related to each other and to the vertebrate neurotrophins than other members of the spatzle family and some family members have neutrophin-like activity. (Adpated from FBrf0206302).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Neurotrophin which may function as a ligand for the Toll-related receptors Toll-7 and Tollo (PubMed:22022271, PubMed:23892553). Binds to Toll-7 and probably acts as its ligand in promoting motor axon targeting and neuronal survival in the central nervous system (CNS) (PubMed:23892553). Involved in synaptic targeting of ISNb/d motorneurons and also some SNa motorneurons (PubMed:19018662). In larvae, involved in the negative regulation of the tracheal immune response to bacterial infection perhaps by acting as a ligand for the Toll-related receptor Tollo (PubMed:22022271). May be involved in the normal development of specific neurons at the neuromuscular junction (PubMed:24124519).
(UniProt, B7TB45)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

secreted ligand that maintains neuronal survival - expression rescues naturally occurring cell death and enables targeting by motor neurons

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
7
Number of Unique Polypeptides
3

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\NT1 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Structure New Section
Protein 3D structure   (Predicted by AlphaFold)   (AlphaFold entry B7TB45)

If you don't see the viewer to the right, refresh your browser.
Model Confidence:
  • Very high (pLDDT > 90)
  • Confident (90 > pLDDT > 70)
  • Low (70 > pLDDT > 50)
  • Very low (pLDDT < 50)

AlphaFold produces a per-residue confidence score (pLDDT) between 0 and 100. Some regions with low pLDDT may be unstructured in isolation.

Comments on Gene Model

Multiphase exon postulated: exon reading frame differs in alternative transcripts; overlap >20aa.

Gene model reviewed during 5.46

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0301517
2012
454
FBtr0301518
1608
454
FBtr0301519
3782
886
FBtr0301520
1900
454
FBtr0301608
3873
1042
FBtr0333586
3985
1042
FBtr0333587
3581
1042
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
UniProt
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0290732
50.9
454
4.75
FBpp0290733
50.9
454
4.75
FBpp0290734
100.3
886
6.61
FBpp0290735
50.9
454
4.75
FBpp0290823
114.4
1042
6.42
FBpp0305763
114.4
1042
6.42
FBpp0305764
114.4
1042
6.42
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

454 aa isoforms: NT1-PB, NT1-PC, NT1-PE
1042 aa isoforms: NT1-PF, NT1-PG, NT1-PH
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Homodimer; disulfide-linked.

(UniProt, B7TB45)
Crossreferences
InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\NT1 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that the Fly Cell Atlas project found the gene expressed in that cell type. Darker colors mean that more cells of that cell type express the gene:
 low
high 
Colorless tiles indicate that there is no scRNAseq data for the gene in that cell type.
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data (RNA and/or protein) has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
Colored tiles in the ribbon indicate the average RNA expression level of the gene at the indicated stages:
 low
high 
as determined by RNA-seq (RPKM) using whole organism samples modENCODE, Brown et al., 2014. For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Expression assayed at stages 9, 11, 13, and 17. Expression may be continuous between assayed stages in some tissues.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\NT1 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 3 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 15 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of NT1
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of NT1
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 1 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 1 )
Gene disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (0)
No records found.
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (0)
No records found.
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (0)
No records found.
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (0)
No records found.
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (0)
No records found.
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (0)
No records found.
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (0)
No records found.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Other Organism Orthologs (via OrthoDB)
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
    Disease Model Summary Ribbon
    Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
    Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
    Human Ortholog
    Disease
    Evidence
    References
    Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
    Allele
    Disease
    Interaction
    References
    Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
    Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
    Homo sapiens (Human)
    Gene name
    Score
    OMIM
    OMIM Phenotype
    DO term
    Complementation?
    Transgene?
    Functional Complementation Data
    Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
    Interactions
    Summary of Physical Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
    Select Layout:
    Legend:
    Protein
    RNA
    Selected Interactor(s)
    Interactions Browser

    Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
    protein-protein
    Physical Interaction
    Assay
    References
    Summary of Genetic Interactions
    esyN Network Diagram
    esyN Network Key:
    Suppression
    Enhancement

    Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    Starting gene(s)
    Interaction type
    Interacting gene(s)
    Reference
    External Data
    Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
    Homodimer; disulfide-linked.
    (UniProt, B7TB45 )
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Pathways
    Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
    Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway Core Components -
    In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
    Metabolic Pathways
    External Data
    Linkouts
    Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
    Chromosome (arm)
    3L
    Recombination map
    3-12
    Cytogenetic map
    Sequence location
    FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Evidence for location
    64B9-64B9
    Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)rG166rG166 and P{PZ}sinu06524
    Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
    Cytogenetic map
    Notes
    References
    Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
    Location
    Left of (cM)
    Right of (cM)
    Notes
    Stocks and Reagents
    Stocks (5)
    Genomic Clones (22)
    cDNA Clones (24)
     

    Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

    cDNA clones, fully sequenced
    BDGP DGC clones
    Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    BDGP DGC clones
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
     
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: CG32242 CG32244

    Source for merge of: spz2 CG42576

    Source for merge of: NT1 spz2

    Additional comments

    Annotations CG32242 and CG32244 merged CG42576 in release 5.17 of the genome annotation.

    Annotation CG18318 split into CG32242 and CG32244 in release 3 of the genome annotation.

    Other Comments

    Neurons die in excess in the absence of NT1.

    NT1 promotes cell survival non-autonomously in the CNS.

    NT1 produced by the muscle enables correct motor neuron targeting.

    NT1 and spz are expressed in the embryonic lateral muscles in a complementary pattern, suggesting that they may aid targeting by different axonal projections and promote the survival of distinct subsets of neurons.

    Identification: BLAST and other bioinformatic tools have identified a neurotrophin sequence homologue exhibiting sequence and structural conservation of functionally-important residues of the neurotrophin cystine-knot family.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 51 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/GCRP - The gene-centric reference proteome (GCRP) provides a 1:1 mapping between genes and UniProt accessions in which a single 'canonical' isoform represents the product(s) of each protein-coding gene.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    AlphaFold DB - AlphaFold provides open access to protein structure predictions for the human proteome and other key proteins of interest, to accelerate scientific research.
    BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    InterPro - A database of protein families, domains and functional sites
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (18)
    Reported As
    Name Synonyms
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0084557
    • FBgn0260984
    • FBgn0087009
    • FBgn0260813
    • FBgn0052242
    • FBgn0035556
    • FBgn0052244
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    Study result (0)
    Result
    Result Type
    Title
    References (53)