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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\eIF2α
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha
Annotation Symbol
CG9946
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261609
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2α) encodes one of three subunits of the eIF-2 complex required for the initiation of translation. eIF2α is classified as a 'Minute' gene as heterozygous mutants exhibit a slower developmental rate and small adult bristles. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

eIF-2alpha, eIF-2α, eIF2a, M(1)8e3-10, eIF-2

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
1-53
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:16445176..16446993
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (8 terms)
Molecular Function (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with SGD:S000001734
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063907
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063907
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000001734
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:3265
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003767
Biological Process (1 term)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:3265
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003767
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000001734
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (0 terms)
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
located_in cytosol
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:3265
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003767
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063908
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with HGNC:3265
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000003767
inferred from sequence or structural similarity
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063908
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063908
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from sequence or structural similarity with SGD:S000001734
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000063908
(assigned by GO_Central )
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the eIF-2-alpha family. (P41374)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2α) encodes one of three subunits of the eIF-2 complex required for the initiation of translation. eIF2α is classified as a 'Minute' gene as heterozygous mutants exhibit a slower developmental rate and small adult bristles. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
CYTOPLASMIC TRANSLATION INITIATION FACTORS -
Cytoplasmic (or eukaryotic) translation initiation factors function in the initiation stage of ribosome-mediated translation in the cytoplasm. (Adapted from FBrf0233552 and PMID:20094052).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
eIF-2 functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA. This preinitiation complex mediates ribosomal recognition of a start codon during the scanning process of the leader region.
(UniProt, P41374)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
M(1)14C
Moderate Minute.
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\eIF2α for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.51

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0074300
1200
341
FBtr0343016
1519
341
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

1.350 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0074075
38.6
341
4.59
FBpp0309768
38.6
341
4.59
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

341 aa isoforms: eIF2α-PA, eIF2α-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)
Comments

eIF-2α protein is phosphorylated by Gcn2 protein.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Heterotrimer composed of an alpha, a beta and a gamma chain.

(UniProt, P41374)
Post Translational Modification

Phosphorylation of eIF-2-alpha impairs the recycling of eIF-2 between successive rounds of initiation and thus leads to inhibition of translation.

(UniProt, P41374)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\eIF2α using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data
Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\eIF2α in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 4 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 11 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of eIF2α
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of eIF2α
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 12 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (1)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (1)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (2)
13 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (2)
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
9 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
11 of 12
Yes
Yes
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09190D08 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG09150905 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W09W2 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X09RW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G07NN )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (0)
No records found.
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 3 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Heterotrimer composed of an alpha, a beta and a gamma chain.
(UniProt, P41374 )
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-53
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
14C6-14C6
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}EP1547EP1547 and P{EP}CG4928EP1341; Left limit from inclusion within Tp(1;2)r+75c (FBrf0045066) Right limit from non-inclusion within Df(1)r-D1 (FBrf0045066)
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
14C8-14D1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (10)
Genomic Clones (14)
 

Please Note FlyBase no longer curates genomic clone accessions so this list may not be complete

cDNA Clones (59)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 

monoclonal

Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: eIF2α eIF-2α

Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: eIF-2α M(1)14C

Additional comments

"l(1)G0272" may affect "eIF-2α".

Other Comments

RNAi screen using dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene results in aberrantly short, monopolar spindles when assayed in S2 cells. This phenotype can be observed when the screen is performed with or without Cdc27 dsRNA.

Minute gene.

eIF-2α protein from both control and heat shocked cells has been purified and characterised.

eIF-2α has been isolated and characterised.

eIF-2α nucleotide sequence displays a high degree of similarity with the human and yeast homologs. eIF-2α mRNA displays quasi-constitutive expression.

eIF-2α mRNA displays quasi-constitutive expression.

One of a class of genes (see MIN record) that when present in one, rather than two, copies, produce a characteristic phenotype consisting of short slender bristles and delayed development.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 57 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
Linkouts
Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
Cell Signaling Technology - Commercial vendor for primary antibodies and antibody conjugates.
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (34)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Eif2α
M(1)19-153
eIF-2alphaeIF-2α
Name Synonyms
Eukaryotic initiation factor 2α
Minute (1) 14C
eIF-2α
eukaryotic translation Initiation Factor 2
eukaryotic translation Initiation Factor 2α
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0004925
  • FBgn0024971
  • FBgn0002589
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
Project Type
Title
References (140)