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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\Gprk2
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2
Annotation Symbol
CG17998
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0261988
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
[G-protein-coupled receptor] kinase (2.7.11.16)
Gene Summary
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2) encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine kinases that modulate G-protein coupled receptors. It is required for female fertility, normal egg shape, and normal egg cAMP levels. It is also implicated in Hedgehog signaling and olfactory rhythmicity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

nosh

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
Recombination map
3-102
RefSeq locus
NT_033777 REGION:31405245..31457873
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (20 terms)
Molecular Function (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001219783
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (12 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (11 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:fu; FB:FBgn0001079
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:smo; FB:FBgn0003444
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:ptc; FB:FBgn0003892
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Su(fu); FB:FBgn0005355
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Gαi; FB:FBgn0001104
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Gαs; FB:FBgn0001123
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:gish; FB:FBgn0250823
inferred from direct assay
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:smo; FB:FBgn0003444
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:Tl; FB:FBgn0262473
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001219783
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001219785
(assigned by GO_Central )
Cellular Component (3 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
is_active_in cytoplasm
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001219785
(assigned by GO_Central )
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GPRK subfamily. (P32866)
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
ATP + [G-protein-coupled receptor] = ADP + [G-protein-coupled receptor] phosphate (2.7.11.16)
Predictions / Assertions
-
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (Gprk2) encodes a member of a family of serine/threonine kinases that modulate G-protein coupled receptors. It is required for female fertility, normal egg shape, and normal egg cAMP levels. It is also implicated in Hedgehog signaling and olfactory rhythmicity. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
AGC KINASES (UNCLASSIFIED) -
The AGC kinase subfamily are serine/threonine kinases that were originally defined based on the sequence similarity of the catalytic domain. The AGC KINASE (UNCLASSIFIED) gene group represents AGC kinases that do not fall into the PKA, PKC or PKG families. (Adapted from FBrf0132098 and PMID:20027184).
Pathway (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of hedgehog signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the activation of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Positive Regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. Positive regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling lead to the increased nuclear accumulation of the NF-κB proteins and regulated expression of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Specifically phosphorylates the activated forms of G protein-coupled receptors (By similarity). Required during oogenesis and embryogenesis; component of a signaling pathway that functions during egg chamber maturation.
(UniProt, P32866)
Summary (Interactive Fly)

Serine/threonine protein kinase - involved in a receptor-mediated signaling pathway that utilizes cAMP as a second messenger - involved in oogenesis and implicated in learning

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
2
Number of Unique Polypeptides
1

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\Gprk2 for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.47

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0085788
4690
714
FBtr0334555
3545
714
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

5.5, 5.0, 4.0 (northern blot)

2.8 (longest cDNA)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0085149
80.7
714
6.31
FBpp0306622
80.7
714
6.31
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

714 aa isoforms: Gprk2-PA, Gprk2-PB
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

714 (aa); 80 (kD observed); 81 (kD predicted)

427 (aa); 50 (kD predicted)

Comments
External Data
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\Gprk2 using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
in situ
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
antenna

Comment: exhibits circadian cycling

Additional Descriptive Data

Gprk2 is expressed in antennae. Gprk2 mRNA levels oscillate in a diurnal manner with a peak at ZT17 and a trough at ZT1.

Gprk2 transcript is expressed throughout the wing disc, with highest levels observed immediately anterior to the A/P boundary.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Gprk2 is expressed in antennae. Gprk2 protein levels oscillate in a diurnal manner with a peak at ZT17 and a trough at ZT1.

Gprk1 protein is found at all stages by western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining shows that it is ubiquitous in the adult fly.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
located_in cytoplasm
inferred from direct assay
located_in plasma membrane
inferred from high throughput direct assay
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\Gprk2 in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 18 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 20 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of Gprk2
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of Gprk2
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 3 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 3 )
Gene partially disrupted in
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Sterility
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
nurse cell & actin filament
nurse cell & nucleus
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (9)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
2  
12 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (6)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
12 of 15
No
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (6)
13 of 13
Yes
Yes
11 of 13
No
Yes
10 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (7)
12 of 12
Yes
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
7 of 12
No
Yes
4 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
3 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (9)
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
13 of 15
Yes
Yes
11 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (2)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (2)
1 of 9
Yes
No
1 of 9
Yes
No
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (0)
No records found.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (0)
No records found.
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0919044X )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091502BI )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W042A )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X03YX )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G062G )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (1)
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 0 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 1 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Positive Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Positive regulators of hedgehog signaling up-regulate the pathway, resulting in the activation of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Negative Regulators of Hedgehog Signaling Pathway -
Negative regulators of hedgehog signaling down-regulate the pathway, resulting in the repression of transcription of hh-responsive genes.
Positive Regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling Pathway -
In Drosophila, the canonical Toll signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of a spatzle ligand to Toll (Tl) or a Toll-like receptor leading to the nuclear localization of the NF-κB (dl or Dif) transcription factor. Positive regulators of Toll-NF-κB Signaling lead to the increased nuclear accumulation of the NF-κB proteins and regulated expression of target genes. (Adapted from FBrf0091014 and FBrf0223077).
Metabolic Pathways
FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
External Data
Linkouts
KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
3R
Recombination map
3-102
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
100C3-100C4
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{PZ}l(3)rM731rM731 and P{EP}pygoEP1076
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
100C-100C
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
100C3-100C5
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (22)
Genomic Clones (36)
cDNA Clones (139)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

    For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

    cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
    RNAi and Array Information
    Linkouts
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    Antibody Information
    Laboratory Generated Antibodies
    Commercially Available Antibodies
     
    Other Information
    Relationship to Other Genes
    Source for database identify of
    Source for database merge of

    Source for merge of: Gprk2 CG17998

    Source for merge of: Gprk2 nosh

    Additional comments
    Other Comments

    dsRNA made from templates generated with primers directed against this gene tested in RNAi screen for effects on Kc167 and S2R+ cell morphology.

    Gprk2 has been cloned and sequenced, and its expression pattern has been analysed.

    Mutations in nosh disrupt a pathway that is involved in the development of many different tissues. nosh protein is a putative G protein-coupled receptor kinase.

    Gprk2 has been cloned and sequenced.

    Origin and Etymology
    Discoverer
    Etymology
    Identification
    External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 53 )
    Sequence Crossreferences
    NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
    GenBank Nucleotide - A collection of sequences from several sources, including GenBank, RefSeq, TPA, and PDB.
    GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
    RefSeq - A comprehensive, integrated, non-redundant, well-annotated set of reference sequences including genomic, transcript, and protein.
    UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
    Other crossreferences
    Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
    DRscDB - A single-cell RNA-seq resource for data mining and data comparison across species
    EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas - Single cell expression across species
    Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
    FlyAtlas - Adult expression by tissue, using Affymetrix Dros2 array
    FlyAtlas2 - A Drosophila melanogaster expression atlas with RNA-Seq, miRNA-Seq and sex-specific data
    Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
    FlyMet - A comprehensive tissue-specific metabolomics resource for Drosophila.
    FlyMine - An integrated database for Drosophila genomics
    GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
    iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
    KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
    MARRVEL_MODEL - MARRVEL (model organism gene)
    modMine - A data warehouse for the modENCODE project
    SignaLink - A signaling pathway resource with multi-layered regulatory networks.
    Linkouts
    DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
    DRSC - Results frm RNAi screens
    Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
    KEGG Pathways - Wiring diagrams of molecular interactions, reactions and relations.
    MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
    Reactome - An open-source, open access, manually curated and peer-reviewed pathway database.
    Synonyms and Secondary IDs (9)
    Reported As
    Symbol Synonym
    nosh
    Secondary FlyBase IDs
    • FBgn0004834
    • FBgn0039847
    • FBgn0011677
    Datasets (0)
    Study focus (0)
    Experimental Role
    Project
    Project Type
    Title
    References (129)