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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\norpA
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
no receptor potential A
Annotation Symbol
CG3620
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0262738
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Enzyme Name (EC)
Phosphoinositide phospholipase C (3.1.4.11)
Phospholipase C (3.1.4.3)
Gene Snapshot
Also Known As

PLC, PLCβ, phospholipase C, PLC-β, MRE18

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:4,322,626..4,365,408 [+]
Recombination map

1-7

RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:4322626..4365408
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (27 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (4 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR016280
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000036885
(assigned by GO_Central )
traceable author statement
Biological Process (21 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (14 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (8 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Cellular Component (2 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
traceable author statement
Gene Group (FlyBase)
Protein Family (UniProt)
-
Catalytic Activity (EC)
Experimental Evidence
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate + H(2)O = 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + diacylglycerol (3.1.4.11)
Predictions / Assertions
1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate + H(2)O = 1D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate + diacylglycerol (3.1.4.11)
A phosphatidylcholine + H(2)O = 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol + phosphocholine (3.1.4.3)
Summaries
Gene Group (FlyBase)
PHOSPHOLIPASES C -
Phospholipases C are hydrolases that catalyze the conversion of a phospholipid into 1,2-diacylglycerol and a phosphatidate.
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
The production of the second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) is mediated by activated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C enzymes (By similarity). Essential component of the phototransduction pathway (PubMed:2457447). Essential downstream component of a hh-signaling pathway which regulates the Duox-dependent gut immune response to bacterial uracil; required for the activation of Cad99C and consequently Cad99C-dependent endosome formation, which is essential for the Duox-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to intestinal bacterial infection (PubMed:25639794).
(UniProt, P13217)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
norpA: no receptor potential A (J.C. Hall)
Structural gene for phospholipase-C (PLC; specifically, phosphatidyl inositol 4.5 biphosphate phosphodiesterase). norpA mutants are blind and have no (or reduced) light-elicited photoreceptor potentials (re: electroretinograms) in the compound eyes and ocelli. Adults homozygous or hemizygous for severe alleles are completely blind, whereas those carrying weaker alleles have amplitude-subnormal ERGs induced by light (Ostroy and Pak, 1974, BBRC 59: 960-66; Wilson and Ostroy, 1987a). Light-induced behavior (negative phototaxis) of larvae also absent under influence of severe alleles [Markow, 1981, Behav. Neur. Biol. 31: 348-53; Hotta and Keng, 1984, Animal Behavior: Neurophysiological and Ethological Approaches (Aoki et al., eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 49-60]. A decrease in the amount of rhodopsin occurs under influence of severe alleles (Ostroy, 1978), though this was largely blocked when the mutant flies were reared and kept in constant darkness (Zinkl et al., 1990), and precedes an age-dependent degeneration of adult photoreceptors (Wilson and Ostroy, 1987b), which is accentuated at high temperatures (Zinkl et al., 1990). Severe mutants show no pigment granule migration with light adaptation (Lo and Pak, 1981). Electrophysiological as well as behavioral phenotypes are present in the youngest flies tested, long before the degenerative changes become apparent. There are zipper-like membrane specializations on plasmalemma of norpA retinula cells (Alawi, Jennings, Grossfield, and Pak, 1972, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 24: 1-21; Stark, Sapp, and Carlson, 1988, J. Neurogenet. 5: 49-59). Microvillar membranes of the photoreceptor-cell rhabdomeres are severely depleted in six-day-old norpA7 adults [Hirosawa and Hotta, 1982, The Structure of the Eye (Hollifield, ed.). Elsevier, New York, pp. 45-53]. norpA mutants show polypeptide differences with respect to eye proteins on 1-d or 2-d gels [Ostroy and Pak, 1973, Nature (London) 243: 120-21; Hotta, 1979]. The mutation blocks light-induced phosphorylation of three eye-specific proteins (Matsumoto et al., 1982); one of these proteins has been identified as R1-6 opsin (Nichols and Pak); blockage of this phosphorylation is most complete in severely blind norpA alleles, less so in norpA alleles with measurable ERGs. Phospholipid kinase (diglyceride kinase) activity is nearly absent in norpA mutants, as is phosphorylation of the photoreceptor phospholipid, phosphatidic acid (Yoshioka et al., 1983). Hydrolysis of phosphatidyl-inositol 4.5-biphosphate, liberation of the inositol triphosphate product, and activity of PLC are only 2-3% normal (Inoue et al., 1985, 1988), under the influence of a severe allele (norpA7) and are about 10% of normal in norpA9, decreasing another five-fold (as does heat-sensitive blindness) after shift to 28 (Inoue et al., 1985, 1988). so (sine oculis) removes about 90% of PLC activity, whereas a norpA mutation can remove substantially more (Inoue et al., 1985; Yoshioka, Inoue, and Hotta, 1985, J. Biochem. 97: 1251-54); this would seem to jibe with the provisional demonstration, by in situ hybridization, of a low level of norpA expression (however, this was not shown to be specifically a gene product) in the optic lobes and central brain (Bloomquist et al., 1988).
Summary (Interactive Fly)

phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C used in visual and odor signal transduction

Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
6
Number of Unique Polypeptides
2

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\norpA for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 5.55

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters.

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Annotated transcripts do not represent all supported alternative splices within 5' UTR.

Gene model reviewed during 5.52

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0070651
7179
1095
FBtr0070650
7112
1095
FBtr0100670
6650
1095
FBtr0100671
7641
1095
FBtr0301475
7910
1095
FBtr0343599
7304
1095
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)

7.5, 6.5, 5.5, 5.0 (northern blot)

7.5 (northern blot)

Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0070619
124.9
1095
7.00
FBpp0070618
124.9
1095
7.00
FBpp0100136
124.8
1095
6.90
FBpp0100137
124.8
1095
6.90
FBpp0290690
124.9
1095
7.00
FBpp0310196
124.8
1095
6.90
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1095 aa isoforms: norpA-PC, norpA-PD, norpA-PF
1095 aa isoforms: norpA-PA, norpA-PB, norpA-PE
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

1095 (aa)

130 (kD observed)

Comments

"Type I" and "Type II" norpA proteins are the same size but differ in 14 amino acid positions between residues 130 and 155.

Evidence suggests that norpA and the bovine retinal proteins constitute a distinctive subfamily of phospholipases C.

External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)

Interacts with inaD.

(UniProt, P13217)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Nucleotide / Polypeptide Records
 
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\norpA using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
expression microarray
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
northern blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
RT-PCR
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

Isoform-specific expression patterns are observed. One norpA isoform was previously reported to be expressed specifically in the retina. In this work, another is shown to be expressed in the gut epithelia. The isoforms differ in the use of a pair of alternative mutually exclusive internal exons.

Eye-enriched transcripts determined by ratio of expression level in wild-type heads. versus expression level in so heads.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Polypeptide Expression
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
western blot
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

The axon terminals of Bolwig's nerve that contact the dendritic arborizations of the lateral neurons (LNs) are immunopositive for norpA.

Western blots show that norpA protein is abundant in extracts from adult heads. Small amounts are detected in adult bodies. Protein is detected in homogenates of adult legs, male thorax, female thorax, and male abdomen, but not in female abdomen. Phospholipase C activity was measured in Drosophila tissues. A high level of activity was found in heads and a severeley reduced level was found in heads of norpA mutants. The majority of the activity is localized in the eye. In eya mutants (lacking eyes), the level is reduced by about 65%indicating that there is some activity in other tissues such as the ocelli. Low levels of activity could also be measured in the body. Immunonostaining of adult tissue sections with an antibody against norpA protein shows staining in the retina, ocelli, optic lobes, cerebrum, and thoracic ganglia.

Marker for
 
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\norpA in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, and Transgenic Constructs
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 83 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 22 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of norpA
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of norpA
Deletions and Duplications ( 24 )
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2  
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (15)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
14 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (15)
12 of 13
Yes
Yes
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
2 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (16)
7 of 12
Yes
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (21)
6 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
Yes
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
4 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
Yes
2 of 15
No
Yes
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (9)
5 of 9
Yes
Yes
5 of 9
Yes
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
No
4 of 9
No
No
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
4 of 9
No
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
5 of 15
Yes
No
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
2 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091901IO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila erecta
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila mojavensis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091500W3 )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W00QW )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X018Z )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G00XL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (3)
5 of 10
3 of 10
1 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 1 )
Allele
Disease
Evidence
References
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 0 )
Human Ortholog
Disease
Evidence
References
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 2 )
Allele
Disease
Interaction
References
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
External Data
Subunit Structure (UniProtKB)
Interacts with inaD.
(UniProt, P13217 )
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map

1-7

Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:4,322,626..4,365,408 [+]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
4B6-4C1
Limits computationally determined from genome sequence between P{EP}CG2930EP1352 and P{EP}EP425
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
4B6-4B6
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
4B6-4C1
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
4B-4C
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Left of (cM)
Right of (cM)
Notes
Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (25)
Genomic Clones (24)
cDNA Clones (164)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: norpA CG3620

Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: norpA anon- EST:Posey221

Source for merge of: norpA MRE18

Additional comments

MRE18 is part of the 3' UTR of norpA.

MRE18 corresponds to a portion of the 3' UTR of norpA.

Other Comments

norpA is required for the rapid termination of the light response in the retina after cessation of the light signal. This function does not require the phospholipase C activity of the protein, rather the GTPase-activating protein activity is needed for this function.

norpA is required for entrainment of the circadian clock by temperature.

inaD protein binds directly to norpA protein via two terminally positioned PDZ1 and PDZ5 domains. PDZ1 binds to the C-terminus of norpA, while PDZ5 binds to an internal region overlapping with the G-box homology region.

norpA-coded PLC modulates the 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive Ca2+ channels in larval muscles. The DHP-sensitive current is reduced in mutants. DHP-sensitive channels in the larval muscles are modulated via the PLC-DAG-PKC pathway.

In disrupted photoreceptor cells metarhodopsin is not stabilised until arrestin is present. In intact photoreceptor cels significant metarhodopsin stabilisation occurs even in the absence of bound arrestin.

A novel tripeptide motif in the C terminus of norpA associates with inaD. Expression of transgenic norpA that displays no interaction with inaD reveals abnormal ERG with slow kinetics suggesting the association between inaD and norpA is important in the regulation of activation and deactivation of visual transduction. Immunoprecipitation and overlay assays reveal that DIP2 is norpA.

Vitamin A deprivation causes a reduction in the steady state level of phospholipase C by about two-fold.

Retinal degeneration caused by rdgE mutants requires functional rhodopsin but the degeneration is not dependent upon the activation of the subsequent PLC-mediated visual transduction cascade.

An alternative subtype of norpA protein, produced by alternative splicing, has been identified and the expression pattern of two norpA protein subtypes has been studied.

ninaE mutants act as dominant rhodopsin mutants by suppressing the production of the wild type ninaE rhodopsin. As a consequence of the lowered rhodopsin content the mutations suppress the rapid retinal degeneration associated with rdgC and norpA mutations.

Odorant response in the maxillary palp depends on norpA. norpA is also essential to phototransduction.

Odorant response in the maxillary palp olfactory organ depends on norpA, providing evidence for the use of the IP3 signal transduction pathway. The norpA gene is also essential to phototransduction. This work demonstrates overlap in the genetic and molecular components underlying vision and olfaction.

Light-sensitive norpA phospholipase C activity in Drosophila head membranes is guanyl nucleotide sensitive and dependent on normal Gβ76C function.

Phosphorylation of Arr2 is dependent upon the activation of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PI-PLC), norpA.

norpA encoded phospholipase C is predominantly membrane associated in both light- and dark-adapted adults. The fact that the enzyme activity can be extracted by high salt suggests that the protein is peripherally localized on the membranes.

Light induces a rapid increase in internal calcium concentration in photoreceptors. Mutations in norpA block the light evoked inward current (LIC) and the calcium signal.

The calcium content of light and dark raised flies demonstrates that calcium accumulation is a secondary effect, rather than primary effect, in the degeneration process.

norpA used to clone four highly conserved forms of the β class of phospholipase C from bovine retina.

Mutants do not differ from wild type in phospholipid labelling in adult head under light or dark conditions.

norpA RNA and protein expression, and phospholipase C activity have been studied in wild-type and norpA mutant flies.

The genomic organisation of the norpA gene has been determined.

norpA protein expression and distribution in the eye has been studied.

Mutant analysis provides evidence for the participation of a G0-like protein in learning and memory.

Identified as a cDNA clone that is expressed exclusively or predominantly in the adult visual system.

norpA protein has been purified ad partially sequenced.

Phospholipid metabolism has been examined in norpA mutant adult head extracts.

norpA mutations have been used to assess the role of 'basic vision ' in complex behaviors such as courtship and circadian rhythms. Initiation of courtship and beginning of mating are prolonged in mutant males (Markow and Manning, 1980; Tompkins et al., 1982), but norpA females appear to mate more readily than normal females (Tompkins et al., 1982; Markow and Manning, 1982). Blind norpA adults can respond to light changes, with regard to their cyclically changing locomotor activity in 12h:12h light:dark (LD) cycles and in terms of being entrained to exhibit free-running circadian rhythms of activity after transfer from LD to constant darkness (Konopka, 1980; Dushay, Rosbash, and Hall, 1989); yet, the free running periodicities were about 1 hour shorter than control values (Dushay, Rosbasch and Hall, 1989). Experiments involving turning on per-gene expression in adult photoreceptors, which requires exposure (of wild-type) to light-dark transition, is normal in two severe norpA's (Zerr, Hall, Rosbash and Siwicki, 1990). Pressure injections of PLC into eye during ERG recordings does not ameliorate defective norpA physiology (Zinkl et al., 1990). Rhabdomere turnover rhodopsin cycling rhythms (Stark et al., 1988) are damped or absent in norpA (Zinkl et al., 1990).

Structural gene for phospholipase-C (PLC; specifically, phosphatidyl inositol 4.5 biphosphate phosphodiesterase). norpA mutants are blind and have no (or reduced) light-elicited photoreceptor potentials (re: electroretinograms) in the compound eyes and ocelli. Adults homozygous or hemizygous for severe alleles are completely blind, whereas those carrying weaker alleles have amplitude-subnormal ERGs induced by light (Ostroy and Pak, 1974; Wilson and Ostroy, 1987a). Light-induced behavior (negative phototaxis) of larvae also absent under influence of severe alleles (Markow, 1981; Hotta and Keng, 1984). A decrease in the amount of rhodopsin occurs under influence of severe alleles (Ostroy, 1978), though this was largely blocked when the mutant flies were reared and kept in constant darkness (Zinkl, Maier, Studer, Sapp, Chen and Stark, 1990) and precedes an age-dependent degeneration of adult photoreceptors (Wilson and Ostroy, 1987b), which is accentuated at high temperatures (Zinkl et al., 1990). Severe mutants show no pigment granule migration with light adaptation (Lo and Pak, 1981). Electrophysiological as well as behavioral phenotypes are present in the youngest flies tested, long before the degenerative changes become apparent. There are zipper-like membrane specializations on plasmalemma of norpA retinula cells (Alawi et al., 1972; Stark et al., 1988). Microvillar membranes of the photoreceptor-cell rhabdomeres are severely depleted in six-day-old norpA7 adults (Hirosawa and Hotta, 1982). norpA mutants show polypeptide differences with respect to eye proteins on 1-d or 2-d gels (Ostroy and Pak, 1973; Hotta, 1979). The mutation blocks light-induced phosphorylation of three eye-specific proteins (Matsumoto et al., 1982); one of these proteins has been identified as R1-6 opsin (Nichols and Pak); blockage of this phosphorylation is most complete in severely blind norpA alleles, less so in norpA alleles with measurable ERGs. Phospholipid kinase (diglyceride kinase) activity is nearly absent in norpA mutants, as is phosphorylation of the photoreceptor phospholipid, phosphatidic acid (Yoshioka, Inoue and Hotta, 1983). Hydrolysis of phosphatidyl-inositol 4.5-biphosphate, liberation of the inositol triphosphate product and activity of PLC are only 2-3% normal (Inoue et al., 1985; Inoue et al., 1988), under the influence of a severe allele (norpA7) and are about 10% of normal in norpA9, decreasing another five-fold (as does temperature-sensitive blindness) after shift to 28oC (Inoue et al., 1985; Inoue et al., 1988). so (sine oculis) removes about 90% of PLC activity, whereas a norpA mutation can remove substantially more (Inoue et al., 1985; Yoshioka et al., 1985); this would seem to jibe with the provisional demonstration, by in situ hybridization, of a low level of norpA expression (however, this was not shown to be specifically a gene product) in the optic lobes and central brain (Bloomquist et al., 1988).

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer

Pak, Grossfield and Arnold; Hotta and Benzer; Heisenberg (all independently).

Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 74 )
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Synonyms and Secondary IDs (34)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
anon-EST:Posey221
no receptor potential A
norpA
(Guo et al., 2020, Hu et al., 2020, Jiang et al., 2020, Leung et al., 2020, Li et al., 2020, Liu et al., 2020, Akin et al., 2019, Alejevski et al., 2019, Baik et al., 2019, Brodskiy et al., 2019, Chakraborty et al., 2019, Chmiel et al., 2019, Delgado et al., 2019, Devineni et al., 2019, Do, 2019, Gaspar et al., 2019, Liang et al., 2019, Mu et al., 2019, Schopf et al., 2019, Stern et al., 2019, Tsai et al., 2019, Yang and Edery, 2019, Alisch et al., 2018, Cao et al., 2018, Claßen and Scholz, 2018, Croset et al., 2018, Herman et al., 2018, Katz and Minke, 2018, Kim et al., 2018, Kunduri et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Li et al., 2018, Ogueta et al., 2018, Schnaitmann et al., 2018, Suratekar et al., 2018, Watanabe et al., 2018, Ahn et al., 2017, Dombrovski et al., 2017, Dove et al., 2017, Lamaze et al., 2017, Ni et al., 2017, Yasin et al., 2017, Buhl et al., 2016, Clandinin and Owens, 2016-, Cockcroft and Raghu, 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Lone et al., 2016, Saint-Charles et al., 2016, Sokabe et al., 2016, Thakur et al., 2016, Xu et al., 2016, Balakrishnan et al., 2015, Chakrabarti et al., 2015, Gao et al., 2015, Green et al., 2015, Guntur et al., 2015, Hu et al., 2015, Jaiswal et al., 2015, Kim et al., 2015, Lazopulo et al., 2015, Maguire and Sehgal, 2015, Pan et al., 2015, Rister et al., 2015, Sugie et al., 2015, Voolstra et al., 2015, Yamanaka et al., 2015, Zhang et al., 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Chaturvedi et al., 2014, Delgado et al., 2014, Mauss et al., 2014, Melnattur et al., 2014, Milakovic et al., 2014, Mukherjee et al., 2014, Mulakkal et al., 2014, Rosenbaum et al., 2014, Wang et al., 2014, Zhu et al., 2014, Cabrero et al., 2013, Haikala et al., 2013, Kanamori et al., 2013, Lee et al., 2013, Masek and Keene, 2013, Oortveld et al., 2013, Xu et al., 2013, Zhang et al., 2013, Astorga et al., 2012, Chen et al., 2012, Chinchore et al., 2012, de Vries and Clandinin, 2012, Georgiev et al., 2012, Holbrook et al., 2012, Hu et al., 2012, Kinser and Dolph, 2012, Kristaponyte et al., 2012, Lee, 2012, Manning et al., 2012, Pak et al., 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Schneider et al., 2012, Senthilan et al., 2012, Szular et al., 2012, Wernet et al., 2012, Yoshihara and Ito, 2012, Zwarts et al., 2012, FlyBase Genome Annotators, 2011, Friedman et al., 2011, Ito et al., 2011, Kolaczkowski et al., 2011, Oberegelsbacher et al., 2011, Shen et al., 2011, Störtkuhl and Fiala, 2011, Vasiliauskas et al., 2011, Yuan et al., 2011, Barth et al., 2010, Bellmann et al., 2010, Elsaesser et al., 2010, Huang et al., 2010, Kain et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2010, Kwon et al., 2010, Kwon et al., 2010, Kwon et al., 2010, Satoh et al., 2010, Voolstra et al., 2010, Wasbrough et al., 2010, Xiang et al., 2010, Yao and Carlson, 2010, Chinchore et al., 2009, Dasgupta et al., 2009, Dasgupta et al., 2009, Ha et al., 2009, Ha et al., 2009, Kain et al., 2009, Parnas et al., 2009, Salcedo et al., 2009, Sehadova et al., 2009, Wang et al., 2009, Anaka et al., 2008, Hanai et al., 2008, Hoyer et al., 2008, Kain et al., 2008, Krause et al., 2008, Kwon et al., 2008, Lemmon and O'Tousa, 2008, Leung et al., 2008, Ni et al., 2008, Peng et al., 2008, Rosenzweig et al., 2008, Spasić et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Wang et al., 2008, Weber, 2008.12.10, Bakal et al., 2007, Dolezelova et al., 2007, Frohman, 2007.1.29, Han et al., 2007, Landry et al., 2007, Liu et al., 2007, Sanxaridis et al., 2007, Scantlebury et al., 2007, Suh et al., 2007, Veleri et al., 2007, Ahmad et al., 2006, Banerjee et al., 2006, Baumann and Lutz, 2006, Chen et al., 2006, Cronin et al., 2006, Ganguly-Fitzgerald et al., 2006, Garcia-Murillas et al., 2006, Han et al., 2006, Hiesinger et al., 2006, Orem et al., 2006, Rosenbaum et al., 2006, Ueno et al., 2006, Wijnen et al., 2006, Zhai et al., 2006, Chorna-Ornan et al., 2005, Georgiev et al., 2005, LaLonde et al., 2005, Lima and Miesenbock, 2005, Nelson et al., 2005, Taraszka et al., 2005, Usui-Aoki et al., 2005, Wang and Montell, 2005, Yang et al., 2005, Cronin et al., 2004, Hsu et al., 2004, Iakhine et al., 2004, Klarsfeld et al., 2004, Majercak et al., 2004, Malpel et al., 2004, Yoon et al., 2004, Yoshii et al., 2004, Gorska-Andrzejak et al., 2003, Hall, 2003, Mealey-Ferrara et al., 2003, Pollock et al., 2003, Orem and Dolph, 2002, Ivanchenko et al., 2001, Zordan et al., 2001, Agam et al., 2000, Kaneko et al., 2000, Barth and Heisenberg, 1997, Pearn et al., 1996)
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Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0004625
  • FBgn0002961
  • FBgn0004617
  • FBgn0027725
  • FBgn0086549
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References (589)