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General Information
Symbol
Dmel\cac
Species
D. melanogaster
Name
cacophony
Annotation Symbol
CG43368
Feature Type
FlyBase ID
FBgn0263111
Gene Model Status
Stock Availability
Gene Summary
cacophony (cac) encodes the primary structural subunit of a voltage-gated calcium channel, which is located at presynaptic active zones. It functions in evoked neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular synapses. It contributes to male courtship behavior and a wide range of neurophysiological processes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07] (FlyBase Gene Snapshot)
Also Known As

Dmca1A, nbA, l(1)L13, 13, nonB

Key Links
Genomic Location
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:11,931,280..11,985,087 [-]
Recombination map
1-37
RefSeq locus
NC_004354 REGION:11931280..11985087
Sequence
Other Genome Views
The following external sites may use different assemblies or annotations than FlyBase.
Function
GO Summary Ribbons
Gene Ontology (GO) Annotations (32 terms)
Molecular Function (4 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (3 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (2 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from electronic annotation with InterPro:IPR002048
(assigned by InterPro )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001295314
(assigned by GO_Central )
Biological Process (23 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (20 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from genetic interaction with FLYBASE:comt; FB:FBgn0000346
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in autophagy
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in courtship behavior
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from expression pattern
inferred from direct assay
involved_in exocytosis
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
involved_in neuron remodeling
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from mutant phenotype
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (7 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
involved_in calcium ion import
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001295314
(assigned by GO_Central )
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN001295293
(assigned by GO_Central )
non-traceable author statement
inferred from biological aspect of ancestor with PANTHER:PTN000004141
(assigned by GO_Central )
involved_in courtship behavior
non-traceable author statement
non-traceable author statement
traceable author statement
involved_in phototransduction
non-traceable author statement
involved_in visual behavior
non-traceable author statement
Cellular Component (5 terms)
Terms Based on Experimental Evidence (5 terms)
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Terms Based on Predictions or Assertions (1 term)
CV Term
Evidence
References
Protein Family (UniProt)
Belongs to the calcium channel alpha-1 subunit (TC 1.A.1.11) family. (P91645)
Summaries
Gene Snapshot
cacophony (cac) encodes the primary structural subunit of a voltage-gated calcium channel, which is located at presynaptic active zones. It functions in evoked neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular synapses. It contributes to male courtship behavior and a wide range of neurophysiological processes. [Date last reviewed: 2019-03-07]
Gene Group (FlyBase)
VOLTAGE-GATED CALCIUM CHANNEL SUBUNITS -
Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CACN) allow the influx of extracellular Ca2+ in response to plasma membrane depolarization. CACNs are hetero-oligomeric assemblies of a pore-forming α1 subunit plus other structural and accessory subunits. (Adapted from FBrf0218524 and PMID:21746798).
Protein Function (UniProtKB)
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCC) mediate the entry of calcium ions into excitable cells and are also involved in a variety of calcium-dependent processes, including muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, cell motility, cell division and cell death (By similarity). Probably encodes a dihydropyridine-insensitive current. Vital for survival to adulthood.
(UniProt, P91645)
Phenotypic Description (Red Book; Lindsley and Zimm 1992)
cac: cacophony (J.C. Hall)
Males court abnormally with poor mating success and aberrant courtship song, which includes pulses of tone that are polycyclic, rather than monocyclic or tricyclic, within wild-type pulses and have increased amplitude. Some cac pulses, however, are quasi-normal in their cycle numbers (Wheeler et al., 1989); these, as well as many of the polycyclic pulses, have essentially normal intra-pulse frequencies; other cac pulses exhibit anomalous modulations, and these show multiple peaks in the intra-pulse spectra, unlike wild type. Mating success of wingless mutant males is still worse than that of wingless wild-type males, which is correlated with genetic separability of song abnormalities from deficit in mating performance. Female courtship appears to be unaffected by cac; but general locomotor activity of males or females is subnormal. cac is recessive for generally abnormal behavior and for courtship song defects in tra/tra flies (Kulkarni, Hall, and Schilcher).
nbA: night blind A (J.C. Hall)
Higher than normal light-intensity thresholds needed for optomotor or phototactic responses (Heisenberg and Gotz, 1975). More specifically, high-acuity optomotor responses (ability to respond to relatively narrow moving stripes) relatively normal, but high-sensitivity flies (ability to respond to moving stimuli in dim light conditions) are impaired, hence, a "night-blind" phenotype (Heisenberg). In "slow phototaxis/Y-tube" tests (using ordinary white fluorescent light), mutant adults were extremely subnormal and in fact preferred the dark-arm of the Y (Kulkarni and Hall, 1987). Light-on and light-off transient spikes of electroretinogram reduced in amplitude, possibly absent (Heisenberg, 1979; Homyk and Pye, 1989). Weak orientation to spots in Y-maze test (Bulthoff, 1982). nbA mutation may define an essential gene, because nbA3/l(1)11Aa1 heterozygotes lack ERG transients (Homyk and Pye) and are severely defective in phototaxis (Kulkarni and Hall, 1987).
Summary (Interactive Fly)
Gene Model and Products
Number of Transcripts
18
Number of Unique Polypeptides
17

Please see the JBrowse view of Dmel\cac for information on other features

To submit a correction to a gene model please use the Contact FlyBase form

Protein Domains (via Pfam)
Isoform displayed:
Pfam protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Protein Domains (via SMART)
Isoform displayed:
SMART protein domains
InterPro name
classification
start
end
Comments on Gene Model

Gene model reviewed during 6.25

Triple stop-codon suppression (UAG, UGA, UAG) postulated; FBrf0234051, FlyBase analysis.

Gene model reviewed during 5.56

Gene model reviewed during 5.41

Gene model reviewed during 5.39

Tissue-specific extension of 3' UTRs observed during later stages (FBrf0218523, FBrf0219848); all variants may not be annotated

Gene model reviewed during 5.45

Annotated transcripts do not represent all possible combinations of alternative exons and/or alternative promoters

Low-frequency RNA-Seq exon junction(s) not annotated.

Sequence Ontology: Class of Gene
Transcript Data
Annotated Transcripts
Name
FlyBase ID
RefSeq ID
Length (nt)
Assoc. CDS (aa)
FBtr0307318
8471
1848
FBtr0307321
8471
1848
FBtr0307317
8471
1848
FBtr0307319
8471
1848
FBtr0307322
8490
1851
FBtr0307320
10638
1851
FBtr0307313
8474
1849
FBtr0307314
8474
1849
FBtr0307315
10902
1850
FBtr0307316
8477
1850
FBtr0307323
8705
1926
FBtr0307324
8276
1783
FBtr0307325
10251
1954
FBtr0308609
8480
1851
FBtr0332391
8395
1869
FBtr0474239
8471
1852
FBtr0474240
8471
1865
FBtr0474241
8471
2110
Additional Transcript Data and Comments
Reported size (kB)
Comments
External Data
Crossreferences
Polypeptide Data
Annotated Polypeptides
Name
FlyBase ID
Predicted MW (kDa)
Length (aa)
Theoretical pI
RefSeq ID
GenBank
FBpp0298319
212.1
1848
8.13
FBpp0298322
212.2
1848
8.13
FBpp0298318
212.1
1848
8.07
FBpp0298320
212.2
1848
8.07
FBpp0298323
212.5
1851
8.01
FBpp0298321
212.6
1851
7.95
FBpp0298314
212.3
1849
8.01
FBpp0298315
212.2
1849
8.07
FBpp0298316
212.4
1850
8.07
FBpp0298317
212.4
1850
8.01
FBpp0298324
220.6
1926
8.33
FBpp0298325
204.9
1783
7.60
FBpp0298326
223.5
1954
8.44
FBpp0300833
212.5
1851
8.01
FBpp0304665
214.7
1869
7.89
FBpp0423192
212.6
1852
8.13
FBpp0423193
214.2
1865
8.29
FBpp0423194
242.3
2110
8.01
Polypeptides with Identical Sequences

The group(s) of polypeptides indicated below share identical sequence to each other.

1851 aa isoforms: cac-PE, cac-PO
Additional Polypeptide Data and Comments
Reported size (kDa)

1851 (aa); 212 (kD predicted)

Comments

Putative phenylalkylamine binding site predicted.

External Data
Domain

Each of the four internal repeats contains five hydrophobic transmembrane segments (S1, S2, S3, S5, S6) and one positively charged transmembrane segment (S4). S4 segments probably represent the voltage-sensor and are characterized by a series of positively charged amino acids at every third position.

(UniProt, P91645)
Linkouts
Sequences Consistent with the Gene Model
Mapped Features

Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dmel\cac using the Feature Mapper tool.

External Data
Crossreferences
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Linkouts
Expression Data
Expression Summary Ribbons
Colored tiles in ribbon indicate that expression data has been curated by FlyBase for that anatomical location. Colorless tiles indicate that there is no curated data for that location.
For complete stage-specific expression data, view the modENCODE Development RNA-Seq section under High-Throughput Expression below.
Transcript Expression
Polypeptide Expression
epitope tag
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
immunolocalization
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
mass spectroscopy
Stage
Tissue/Position (including subcellular localization)
Reference
Additional Descriptive Data

cac protein is localized to the presynaptic active zone in both larval and adult neuromuscular junctions.

Marker for
Subcellular Localization
CV Term
Evidence
References
inferred from direct assay
inferred from direct assay
inferred from mutant phenotype
inferred from direct assay
Expression Deduced from Reporters
High-Throughput Expression Data
Associated Tools

GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signals

View Dmel\cac in GBrowse 2
RNA-Seq by Region - Search RNA-Seq expression levels by exon or genomic region
Reference
See Gelbart and Emmert, 2013 for analysis details and data files for all genes.
Developmental Proteome: Life Cycle
Developmental Proteome: Embryogenesis
External Data and Images
Linkouts
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
Images
Alleles, Insertions, Transgenic Constructs, and Aberrations
Classical and Insertion Alleles ( 69 )
For All Classical and Insertion Alleles Show
 
Other relevant insertions
Transgenic Constructs ( 27 )
For All Alleles Carried on Transgenic Constructs Show
Transgenic constructs containing/affecting coding region of cac
Transgenic constructs containing regulatory region of cac
Aberrations (Deficiencies and Duplications) ( 23 )
Inferred from experimentation ( 23 )
Inferred from location ( 0 )
Alleles Representing Disease-Implicated Variants
Phenotypes
For more details about a specific phenotype click on the relevant allele symbol.
Lethality
Allele
Other Phenotypes
Allele
Phenotype manifest in
Allele
dorsal medial muscle & synapse
dorsal medial muscle & synapse (with cacL13)
dorsal medial muscle & synapse (with cacTS2)
dorsal medial muscle & synapse (with Df(1)KA10)
dorsal medial muscle & synapse | conditional ts
intracoxal lateral levator muscle & synapse | conditional ts
Orthologs
Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Homo sapiens (Human) (27)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
5  
9 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1  
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1  
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Model Organism Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Mus musculus (laboratory mouse) (26)
Species\Gene Symbol
Score
Best Score
Best Reverse Score
Alignment
Complementation?
Transgene?
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
9 of 15
No
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) (25)
9 of 13
Yes
Yes
8 of 13
No
Yes
6 of 13
No
Yes
4 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
3 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
2 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
Yes
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
No
1 of 13
No
Yes
Xenopus tropicalis (Western clawed frog) (19)
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
6 of 12
Yes
Yes
3 of 12
No
No
3 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
Yes
2 of 12
No
No
2 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
No
1 of 12
No
Yes
Danio rerio (Zebrafish) (29)
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
10 of 15
Yes
Yes
8 of 15
No
Yes
7 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
4 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
No
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
1 of 15
No
Yes
Caenorhabditis elegans (Nematode, roundworm) (6)
15 of 15
Yes
Yes
5 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
3 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
2 of 15
No
No
Arabidopsis thaliana (thale-cress) (1)
2 of 9
Yes
Yes
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Brewer's yeast) (1)
8 of 15
Yes
Yes
Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Fission yeast) (1)
5 of 12
Yes
No
Ortholog(s) in Drosophila Species (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091900DL )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
AAA Syntenic Ortholog
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Drosophila suzukii
Spotted wing Drosophila
Drosophila simulans
Drosophila sechellia
Drosophila yakuba
Drosophila ananassae
Drosophila pseudoobscura pseudoobscura
Drosophila persimilis
Drosophila willistoni
Drosophila virilis
Drosophila grimshawi
Orthologs in non-Drosophila Dipterans (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG0915008I )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Musca domestica
House fly
Musca domestica
House fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Glossina morsitans
Tsetse fly
Lucilia cuprina
Australian sheep blowfly
Mayetiola destructor
Hessian fly
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Aedes aegypti
Yellow fever mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles darlingi
American malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Anopheles gambiae
Malaria mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Culex quinquefasciatus
Southern house mosquito
Orthologs in non-Dipteran Insects (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090W01GP )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Bombyx mori
Silkmoth
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Danaus plexippus
Monarch butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Heliconius melpomene
Postman butterfly
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis florea
Little honeybee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Apis mellifera
Western honey bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus impatiens
Common eastern bumble bee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Bombus terrestris
Buff-tailed bumblebee
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Linepithema humile
Argentine ant
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Megachile rotundata
Alfalfa leafcutting bee
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Nasonia vitripennis
Parasitic wasp
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Dendroctonus ponderosae
Mountain pine beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Tribolium castaneum
Red flour beetle
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Pediculus humanus
Human body louse
Rhodnius prolixus
Kissing bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Cimex lectularius
Bed bug
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum
Pea aphid
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Zootermopsis nevadensis
Nevada dampwood termite
Orthologs in non-Insect Arthropods (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG090X04RT )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Strigamia maritima
European centipede
Ixodes scapularis
Black-legged tick
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Stegodyphus mimosarum
African social velvet spider
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Tetranychus urticae
Two-spotted spider mite
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Daphnia pulex
Water flea
Orthologs in non-Arthropod Metazoa (via OrthoDB v9.1) ( EOG091G0TKO )
Organism
Common Name
Gene
Multiple Dmel Genes in this Orthologous Group
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Strongylocentrotus purpuratus
Purple sea urchin
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Ciona intestinalis
Vase tunicate
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Gallus gallus
Domestic chicken
Paralogs
Paralogs (via DIOPT v8.0)
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly) (5)
8 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
4 of 10
Human Disease Associations
FlyBase Human Disease Model Reports
Disease Model Summary Ribbon
Disease Ontology (DO) Annotations
Models Based on Experimental Evidence ( 4 )
Potential Models Based on Orthology ( 5 )
Modifiers Based on Experimental Evidence ( 5 )
Disease Associations of Human Orthologs (via DIOPT v8.0 and OMIM)
Note that ortholog calls supported by only 1 or 2 algorithms (DIOPT score < 3) are not shown.
Homo sapiens (Human)
Gene name
Score
OMIM
OMIM Phenotype
DO term
Complementation?
Transgene?
Functional Complementation Data
Functional complementation data is computed by FlyBase using a combination of the orthology data obtained from DIOPT and OrthoDB and the allele-level genetic interaction data curated from the literature.
Interactions
Summary of Physical Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
Show neighbor-neighbor interactions:
Select Layout:
Legend:
Protein
RNA
Selected Interactor(s)
Interactions Browser

Please see the Physical Interaction reports below for full details
protein-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
RNA-protein
Physical Interaction
Assay
References
Summary of Genetic Interactions
esyN Network Diagram
esyN Network Key:
Suppression
Enhancement

Please look at the allele data for full details of the genetic interactions
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
Starting gene(s)
Interaction type
Interacting gene(s)
Reference
suppressible
External Data
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Pathways
Signaling Pathways (FlyBase)
Metabolic Pathways
External Data
Linkouts
Genomic Location and Detailed Mapping Data
Chromosome (arm)
X
Recombination map
1-37
Cytogenetic map
Sequence location
X:11,931,280..11,985,087 [-]
FlyBase Computed Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Evidence for location
11A1-11A1
Experimentally Determined Cytological Location
Cytogenetic map
Notes
References
11A-11A
(determined by in situ hybridisation)
Experimentally Determined Recombination Data
Location
Right of (cM)
Notes

97 of 129 recombinants between m and fw ocurred distal to cac. 5 of 8 recombinants between cac and fw were distal to gd. 2 of 10 gd/fw recombinants were distal to tsg.

Stocks and Reagents
Stocks (31)
Genomic Clones (29)
cDNA Clones (42)
 

Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.

cDNA clones, fully sequenced
BDGP DGC clones
Other clones
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center cDNA clones

For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.

cDNA Clones, End Sequenced (ESTs)
BDGP DGC clones
RNAi and Array Information
Linkouts
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
Antibody Information
Laboratory Generated Antibodies
 

polyclonal

Commercially Available Antibodies
 
Other Information
Relationship to Other Genes
Source for database identify of

Source for identity of: cac CG1522

Source for database merge of

Source for merge of: cac CG15928

Additional comments

Annotations CG1522 and CG15928 merged as CG43368 in release 5.36 of the genome annotation.

"E(TS2)22" has not been separated from "cacTS2" in meiotic mapping experiments examining more than 1000 recombinant chromosomes. It is either an intragenic mutation in "cac" or is within a closely linked gene.

Other Comments

Annotation CG15928 restored in release 5.15 of the genome annotation.

Hypomorphic mutations in cac result in defects at the mature larval neuromuscular junction; there is a decrease in both synaptic terminal branching and varicosity number. This reduced synapse proliferation is not due to increased synapse retraction. These mutants do not show defects in neuromuscular junction morphology at the late embryonic stage.

Annotation CG15928 eliminated in release 3 of the genome annotation, October 2002.

The cac gene product, an α1-subunit of the L-type calcium channel, plays a role in epithelial fluid transport, in a distinct calcium entry mechanism mediated by CAP2b, cGMP and thapsigargin.

The cac Ca channels mediate multiple, separable biological functions. These correlate in part with transcript diversity generated by alternative splicing.

Mutants exhibit defective courtship song.

Light-on and light-off transient spikes of electroretinogram are reduced in amplitude, and possibly absent in mutants. The prolonged depolarization after potential (PDA) is also abnormal.

Aberrant intervals between song pulses were observed in cac mutant and cac, nonA double mutant songs.

Complementation patterns for cac mutants are complex, tests are carried out in diplo-X individuals transformed into phenotypic males by tra mutants.

cac mutants show complex complementation patterns and interactions. Courtship song is polycyclic in cac mutants, yet courtship hums and wing beats are normal suggesting a specific role of 'cac' in the neural program underlying a feature of wing vibrations. In 'slow phototaxis/Y-tube' tests (using ordinary white fluorescent light), mutant adults were extremely subnormal and in fact preferred the dark-arm of the Y.

Mutants show weak orientation to spots in Y-maze test.

Light-on and light-off transient spikes of electroretinogram are reduced in amplitude, and possibly absent in mutants.

Mutants require higher than normal light-intensity thresholds for optomotor or phototactic responses. More specifically, high-acuity optomotor responses (ability to respond to relatively narrow moving stripes) are relatively normal, but high-sensitivity flies (ability to respond to moving stimuli in dim light conditions) are impaired, hence, a 'night-blind' phenotype.

Origin and Etymology
Discoverer
Etymology
Identification
External Crossreferences and Linkouts ( 135 )
Sequence Crossreferences
NCBI Gene - Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes, and links to genome-, phenotype-, and locus-specific resources worldwide.
GenBank Protein - A collection of sequences from several sources, including translations from annotated coding regions in GenBank, RefSeq and TPA, as well as records from SwissProt, PIR, PRF, and PDB.
UniProt/Swiss-Prot - Manually annotated and reviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
UniProt/TrEMBL - Automatically annotated and unreviewed records of protein sequence and functional information
Other crossreferences
BDGP expression data - Patterns of gene expression in Drosophila embryogenesis
Drosophila Genomics Resource Center - Drosophila Genomics Resource Center (DGRC) cDNA clones
EMBL-EBI Single Cell Expression Atlas
Eukaryotic Promoter Database - A collection of databases of experimentally validated promoters for selected model organisms.
Fly-FISH - A database of Drosophila embryo and larvae mRNA localization patterns
GenomeRNAi - A database for cell-based and in vivo RNAi phenotypes and reagents
iBeetle-Base - RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum)
KEGG Genes - Molecular building blocks of life in the genomic space.
MARRVEL_MODEL
Linkouts
DroID - A comprehensive database of gene and protein interactions.
Interactive Fly - A cyberspace guide to Drosophila development and metazoan evolution
MIST (genetic) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
MIST (protein-protein) - An integrated Molecular Interaction Database
Synonyms and Secondary IDs (44)
Reported As
Symbol Synonym
Ca-α1A
EE171
H18
H47
P18
cac
(Hsu et al., 2021, Scaplen and Petruccelli, 2021, Anholt et al., 2020, Frank et al., 2020, Graves et al., 2020, Hope et al., 2020, Hung et al., 2020, Kurmangaliyev et al., 2020, Perry et al., 2020, Petzoldt et al., 2020, Sapiro et al., 2020, Zhao et al., 2020, Böhme et al., 2019, Gratz et al., 2019, Kasuya et al., 2019, Lembke et al., 2019, Meltzer et al., 2019, Raza et al., 2019, Scholz et al., 2019, Weiss et al., 2019, Al-Ramahi et al., 2018, Fulterer et al., 2018, Grobler et al., 2018, Harris et al., 2018, Lee et al., 2018, Oriel and Lasko, 2018, Şentürk and Bellen, 2018, Wentzel et al., 2018, Agrawal et al., 2017, Aw et al., 2017, Fisher et al., 2017, Meltzer et al., 2017, Rohde et al., 2017, Transgenic RNAi Project members, 2017-, Vonhoff and Keshishian, 2017, Yao et al., 2017, Carbone et al., 2016, Engel et al., 2016, Gene Disruption Project members, 2016-, Gupta et al., 2016, Jones et al., 2016, Jungreis et al., 2016, Saras and Tanouye, 2016, Spring et al., 2016, Terada et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Wang et al., 2016, Zhang et al., 2016, Brusich et al., 2015, Casci and Pandey, 2015, Diao et al., 2015, Gaviño et al., 2015, Tian et al., 2015, Wiemerslage and Lee, 2015, Ashwal-Fluss et al., 2014, Ford and Davis, 2014, Haelterman et al., 2014, Horiguchi et al., 2014, Inagaki et al., 2014, Iyengar and Wu, 2014, Lee et al., 2014, Westholm et al., 2014, Costa and Stanewsky, 2013, Huang et al., 2013, Kanamori et al., 2013, Sopko and Perrimon, 2013, Terriente-Felix et al., 2013, Yamamoto et al., 2013-, Astorga et al., 2012, Felix et al., 2012, Hazelett et al., 2012, Kaushik et al., 2012, Lutas et al., 2012, Müller and Davis, 2012, Rodriguez et al., 2012, Ryglewski et al., 2012, Savva et al., 2012, Senthilan et al., 2012, Tsubouchi et al., 2012, Ellis and Carney, 2011, Kawasaki et al., 2011, Seong et al., 2011, Yu et al., 2011, Carrillo et al., 2010, Hallermann et al., 2010, Kuromi et al., 2010, Popodi et al., 2010-, Repnikova et al., 2010, Tsurudome et al., 2010, Venken et al., 2010, Dason et al., 2009, Dickman and Davis, 2009, Frank et al., 2009, Gu et al., 2009, Kawasaki and Ordway, 2009, Kurshan et al., 2009, Perkins et al., 2009.8.10, Venken et al., 2009, Dickman et al., 2008, Hou et al., 2008, Long et al., 2008, Ly et al., 2008, Worrell and Levine, 2008, Zou et al., 2008, Dietzl et al., 2007, Peng and Wu, 2007, Peng et al., 2007, Frank et al., 2006, Huang et al., 2006, Macleod et al., 2006, Schmid et al., 2006, Gleason, 2005, Ray and Dowse, 2005, Wu et al., 2005, Philipps et al., 2004, Wang et al., 2004, Hall, 2002, Lindsley and Zimm, 1992)
l(1)11Aa
ldg
nonB
opm18
opm47
Name Synonyms
Calcium Channel α1 subunit
Calcium channel α1 subunit, type A
lamina-degeneration
lethal(1)11Aa
nightblind A
no-on-transient B
Secondary FlyBase IDs
  • FBgn0005563
  • FBgn0000249
  • FBgn0001518
  • FBgn0001754
  • FBgn0002923
  • FBgn0002958
  • FBgn0005430
  • FBgn0020500
  • FBgn0025106
  • FBgn0040856
Datasets (0)
Study focus (0)
Experimental Role
Project
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References (326)