Updated sequence information for this Drosophila species is no longer provided by FlyBase. Gene model annotations for this species are now updated and maintained at NCBI, using the gnomon automated annotation pipeline. See the NCBI page ‘Eukaryotic genomes annotated at NCBI’.
The FlyBase BLAST tool will continue to support queries against the reference genome of this species, but not queries against annotated transcripts or proteins. For the current release, there is no JBrowse or GBrowse view of the gene model annotations for this species.
The FlyBase archived release FB2017_05 includes the last NCBI annotation update for this species that was imported into FlyBase. That sequence data can be accessed from archived gene reports, via the archived GBrowse tool, and via archived bulk-data downloads.
Click to get a list of regulatory features (enhancers, TFBS, etc.) and gene disruptions (point mutations, indels, etc.) within or overlapping Dsim\Lhr using the Feature Mapper tool.
GBrowse - Visual display of RNA-Seq signalsView Dsim\Lhr in GBrowse 2
Please Note This section lists cDNAs and ESTs that fall within the genomic extent of the gene model, which may include cDNAs and ESTs of genes within introns, or of overlapping genes. Please see GBrowse for alignment of the cDNAs and ESTs to the gene model.
For each fully sequenced cDNA the DGRC maintains various forms of the cDNA (e.g tagged or untagged) in several different host vectors for subsequent cloning and expression in Drosophila and Drosophila cell lines.
Source for merge of: Dsim\Lhr Dsim\GD11266
The Hmr and Lhr proteins form a heterochromatic complex with Su(var)205 in D. melanogaster. Hmr and Lhr are required to repress transcripts from satellite DNAs and many families of transposable elements. They are also required to help regulate the length of telomeres (which in Drosophila are composed of domesticated transposable elements).
Upregulation of transposable element transcription is seen in hybrids between D. melanogaster and D. simulans, but this is unlikely to be the direct cause of hybrid lethality.
The Hmr and Lhr proteins form a centromeric complex in D. melanogaster which is required for proper chromosome segregation during mitosis. Both an increase and a decrease in complex levels result in mitotic defects, indicating that this function is extremely dose sensitive. Alteration of the levels of the complex also result in an increase in transcription from transposable elements.
The orthologous D. simulans Dsim\Hmr and Dsim\Lhr proteins also bind each other in coimmunoprecipitation experiments and also localise to the centromere (although Dsim\Hmr also shows a prominent non-centromeric localisation).
The level of Hmr expression in D melanogaster is substantially higher than the expression of the orthologous Dsim\Hmr gene in D. simulans. Conversely, the expression of the D. simulans Dsim\Lhr gene is higher than the expression of the orthologous Lhr gene in D. melanogaster. Hybrids derived from a cross between D. melanogaster females and D. simulans males thus have an elevated amount of the Hmr-Lhr protein complex compared to the parent species, and the complex is delocalised, being bound to numerous interbands along all chromosome arms in the hybrids. Hybrid males and females show a massive increase in transcription from transposable elements, but as the effect is not sex-specific, this is presumably not the the main cause of the lethality of hybrid males.